Microbiology Chapter 1.txt

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Microbiology Chapter 1.txt
2010-06-13 07:53:46
Microbiology Chapter

Microbiology Chapter 1
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  1. Microbiology
    Embraces a biologically diverse group of usually small life forms, encompassing primarily microorganisms.
  2. Microorganisms
    • Bacteria
    • Fungi
    • Algae
    • Protozoa
    • Viruses
    • Microbes for short
  3. Pathogens
    Disease causing agents
  4. Convex
    Curves outward
  5. Zacharias Janssen
    • A Dutch spectacle maker
    • Discovered two convex lenses put together made small object appear larger
  6. Who coined the term microscopio or microscope?
    Italian Francesco Stelluti or Giovanni Faber in 1625
  7. Robert Hooke
    • Drew cork and called the structure "cells" like a prison. Said he saw a "great many little boxes"
    • First person to draw a microorganism, a mold he found growing on a sheepskin cover of a book.
  8. Antony van Leeuwenhoek
    • A cloth merchant interesting in inspecting the quality of fiber
    • Developed a single lens microscope capable of 200x magnification
    • Called living things observed in a drop of water animalcules.
    • Sent letters describing his discoveries to the Royal Society
    • In 1683, his 39th letter described and illustrated bacterial cells taken from dental plaque for the first time.
  9. Spontaneous Generation
    • The idea that organisms could arise from non-living matter
    • Developed by Aristotle by observing maggots appearing on rotting meat
  10. Francesco Redi
    • One of the first controlled experiments
    • In 1668, he covered jars with paper or gauze preventing flies from landing on meat. This indeed caused no maggots to appear.
    • It took 193 years to prove Redi was right
  11. John Needham
    • British clergyman and naturalist
    • In 1748 he suggested that animalcules resulted from a vital force that reorganized decaying matter from more complex organisms.
    • Boiled tubes of mutton broth and sealed with cork. After several days, the "gravy swarm'd with life, with microscopical animals of most dimensions"
    • Convinced that putrification could generate vital force needed for Spontaneous Generation
  12. Lazzaro Spallanzani
    • Italian cleric
    • Repeated Needham's experiments in 1765 boiling tubes for longer
    • Left some tubes open to air and others loosely stoppered with corks
    • After several days, the open tubes had lots of life and the cork tubes only had a little. Sealed tubes had none.
    • Declared "The number of animalcula developed is proportional to the communication with the external air".
  13. Louis Pasture
    • In 1861, designed an experiment that proved Spontaneous Generation was false
    • The tubes were open to the air, but the broth was block with a bent section of tube that contained water and trapped the entering microbes.
    • Developed the Germ Theory of Disease
    • Found that yeast fermented grape juice into wine.
    • Observed that only sour wine had bacterial cells.
    • Recommended heating wine to 55 deg C after fermentation to keep it from souring (pasteurization).
    • Silkwork disease - identified the protozoa responsible and separated healthy silkworms from diseased and stopped the spread of the disease
    • Used broth for growth medium which made it impossible to isolate a pure culture
  14. Girolamo Fracostoro
    In 1546 he suggested that disease transmission could occur by direct human contact, lifeless objects like clothing and eating utensils, and through the air
  15. Miasma
    An ill-defined idea of the 1700s and 1800s that suggests diseases were caused by an altered chemical quality of the atmosphere
  16. Malaria
    Mala aria - bad air
  17. Epidemiology
    • The scientific study from which the source, cause and mode of transmission of disease can be identified.
    • Ignaz Semmelweis and John Snow were instrumental in suggesting how diseases were transmitted and how simple measures could interrupt transmission.
  18. Ignaz Semmelweis
    • Obstetrician
    • Noticed 29% of medical student's L&D patients died of child bed fever (puerperal fever) vs 3% of midwives
    • Deduced infection came from the cadavers.
    • Directed his staff to wash hands with chlorine water before entering the maternity ward and deaths droped.
  19. John Snow
    In 1854 he plotted the location of Londoners sick with choler and tracked it to a public well. Removing the well hammer stopped the spread of the disease.
  20. Variolation
    Blowing ground up small pox scab powder into the nose or inoculating under the skin to protect from the disease.
  21. Edward Jenner
    • An English country surgeon
    • Learned that milk maids that got cow pox didn't get small pox.
    • In 1796, he inoculated a boy named James Phipps with cow pox. James developed a fever and then recovered. Six weeks later, he inoculated James with small pox. James developed a reaction at the inoculation site but did not develop small pox.
  22. Vaccination
    • Vacca = cow
    • Coined by Edward Jenner who noticed milk maid who got cow pox didn't get small pox.
  23. Christian Enrenberg
    • German biologist
    • Suggested the rod-like looking organisms be called bacteria (backterion = "little rod")
  24. Jacob Henle
    • Swiss Physician
    • Suggested living organisms could cause disease in 1840
  25. Filippo Pacini
    Discovered the rod-shaped cholera bacteria in stool samples.
  26. Golden Age of microbiology
    • Around 1854 to World War 1
    • During these 60 years, many branches of microbiology were established and the foundations were laid for the modern biology
  27. Germ Theory
    Some microorganisms are responsible for infectious disease.
  28. Fermentation
    A splitting of sugar molecules into simpler products including alcohol, acid, and gas (CO2)
  29. Joseph Lister
    • Professor of Surgery at Glasgow Royal Infirmary of Scotland
    • After learning Pasteur's germ theory argued that surgical infects resulted from living organisms in the air.
    • Used carbolic acid spray in surgery in 1865 with great success.
  30. Antisepsis
    The use of chemical methods for disinfection of external living surfaces such as the skin
  31. Robert Koch
    • German county doctor
    • Formalized standards to identify germs with infectius diseases
    • Studied anthrax in sheep
    • Injected mice with anthrax, autopsied the mice, isolated bacteria from the corpse, grew them in an ox eye, watch until spores were produced and finally injected the spores into healthy mice. The healthy mice developed anthrax.
    • Grew pure cultures on potatoes, gelatinized broth and agar broth
    • Coined the term colony
    • Cultured TB, cholera,
  32. Colonies
    Small masses of bacterial cells
  33. Koch's Postulates
    • 1. Same microorganism present in every case of disease
    • 2. Microorganisms are isolated from dead animal and pure culture is prepared
    • 3. Microorganisms from the pure culture are inoculated into a healthy animal
    • 4. Identical microorganisms are isolated and recultivated from tissue of the experimental animal
  34. bacillus
    rod shaped
  35. Attenuate
    To reduce or weaken
  36. Joseph Meister
    • First successful rabies vaccination
    • Became Pasteur's lab assistant
  37. Virus
  38. S. Kitasato
    • Discovered plague bacteria
    • Anerobic bacteria
    • Tetnus
  39. Walter Reed
    Yellow Fever in Panama transmitted by mosquitos
  40. Ronald Ross
    • British
    • Showed mosquitoes transferred malaria to birds
  41. Phycology
    The study of algae
  42. Bacteria
    • 10 million species estimated
    • Most are small singled-celled
    • Many associate in a biofilm
    • May be spherical, rod or spiral shaped
    • Many are helpful decomposers & recyclers
    • backterion = "little rod"
  43. Archaea
    • Bacteria reassigned to a new group.
    • Found in extreme environments, like very hot (Yellowstone hot springs), extremely salty (the Dead Sea), or acidic environments (acidic mine drainage).
  44. Cyanobacteria
    Carry out photosynthesis
  45. Viruses
    • Not cellular and cannot be grown in a pure culture
    • Have a core of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) surrounded by a protein coat
    • Need the metabolic machinery of a cell to replicate
    • Neither Prokaryote nor Eukaryote
  46. Fungi
    • Include unicellular yeasts and multi-cellular mushrooms
    • 100,000 species described
    • Grow in warm moist places
    • Secrete digestive enzymes that break down nutrients into smaller bits that can be absorbed easily.
    • Live in their food supply
  47. Protista
    • Single celled protozoa and algae
    • Locomotion achieved by flagella or cilia or crawling movement
    • Malaria, sleeping sickness and several types of diarrhea are caused by protista
  48. Mutations
    Permanent alterations in DNA base sequences
  49. DNA
    Deoxyribonucleic acid
  50. Electron microscope
    Allowed scientists to true see the bacterial cells
  51. Eukaryotic
    • Eu = true; Karyon = nucleus
    • Contain a cell nucleus that houses the chromosomes & is physically separated from the rest of the cell structures by a membrane
    • Protista
    • Fungi
    • Plantae
    • Anamilia
  52. Prokaryotic
    • Pro = before
    • Bacteria and archaeal cells
    • No cell nucleolus
    • DNA chromosome not surrounded by membrane
  53. Paul Ehrlich
    Synthesized salvarsan, a "magic bullet" that could kill pathogens
  54. Salvarsan
    • A compound that contained arsenic and cured syphilis
    • Created by Paul Ehrlich
  55. Alexander Fleming
    • Scottish
    • Discovered Penicillium mold killed bacteria in 1929
  56. Selman Waksman
    • Discovered actinomycin & streptomycin
    • Streptomycin - 1st effective antibiotic for tuberculosis
  57. Antibiotic
    Anti-microbial substances naturally produced by mold and bacterial species that inhibit growth or kill other microorganisms
  58. Abbe
    Better microscope design, Abbe condenser
  59. David Bruce
    • Great Britain
    • Proved tsetse flies transmit sleeping sickness