1.5.1 HAP

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efrain12
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233100
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1.5.1 HAP
Updated:
2013-09-05 19:23:29
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HAP
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joints
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  1. What are joints?
    the place where two or more bones or cartilage connect
  2. what are the 3 type of joints based on structure
    -fibrous joints

    -cartilagenous joints

    -synovial joints
  3. what are the 3 types of joints based on function?
    -synarthroses

    -amphiathroses

    -diarthroses
  4. 3 types of fibrous joints
    -sutures

    -syndesmoses

    -gomphoses
  5. fibrous joints- what are Sutures?
    fibrous tissue replaced by bone
  6. Firbrous joints- What type of structure joint are sutures?
    synarthroses
  7. Firbrous joints- What are syndesmoses?
    joined by fibrous tissue
  8. Firbrous joints- ehat type of structure joint are syndesmoses?
    amphiarthroses
  9. Firbrous joints- What are gomphoses?
    they are between the teeth and jaw
  10. Firbrous joints- wht type of structural joint are the gomphoses?
    synarthroses
  11. what are cartilaginous joints?
    bones that are joined by cartilage with no joint cavity
  12. what are the 2 types of cartilagenous joints?
    -synchondroses

    -symphyses
  13. cartilaginous joints- what are synchondroses?
    joined by hyaline cartilage
  14. cartilaginous joints- wht strucutural type are the synchondroses?
    synarthroses
  15. cartilaginous joints- what are symphyses?
    hyaline cartilage with an intervening pad of fribrous cartilage
  16. cartilaginous joints- what structural type are the symphyses?
    amphiarthroses
  17. What are synovial joints?
    sepearated by a joint space which are held together by ligaments
  18. what type of structure function are the synovial joints?
    diarthroses
  19. 6 features that synovial joints contain?
    -articular cartilage

    -joint cavity

    -articular capsule

    -synovial fluid

    -ligaments

    -accessory structures
  20. features of synovial joints- The articular cartilage covers what?
    the opposing ends of the 2 bones forming a joint
  21. features of synovial joints- from what are the articular cartilages formed from?
    hyaline cartilage
  22. what does the hyaline cartilage do? (2)
    -absorbs compression placed on joints

    -protect the bones from being eroded
  23. features of synovial joints- what is the joint cavity?
    cavity is more like a potential space being tightly packed and contains synovial fluid.
  24. features of synovial joints- what is the inner layer of the articular capsule called?
    synovial membrane
  25. features of synovial joints- what does the synovial membrane produce?
    synovial fluid
  26. features of synovial joints- what is the outer layer of the articular capsule made out of?
    • periosteum
    • *tough fibrous layer that is continuous with outer covering of bone
  27. features of synovial joints- what does the articular capsule help to do?
    helps to hold the bone together and act as a ligament
  28. features of synovial joints- what does the synovial fluid do?
    helps out in weight bearing by lubricating and nourishing the articular cartilage
  29. features of synovial joints- what does the synovail fluid contain?
    • cells that a phagacidic
    • *these cells eat any microbes or debris in the joint cavity
  30. features of synovial joints-  how does the synovial membrane produce the synovial fluid?
    it contains blood vessels
  31. features of synovial joints- what do these ligaments do?
    hold the bones together and support the joint capsule
  32. what are the 3 types of acessory structures in synovial joints?
    -articular discs or menisci

    -labrum

    -tendons
  33. features of synovial joints-accesory structures-what are Articular discs or menisci
    -cartilaginous structures within joints
  34. features of synovial joints-accesory structures- what do the articular discs or menisci do? (3)
    -they improve the fit of articulating bones

    -reduce friction 

    -increase mobility
  35. features of synovial joints-accesory structures- What are labrum?
    cartilaginous rings to deepen a joint cavity
  36. features of synovial joints-accesory structures- what are tendons?
    tendons of mucles crossing a joint
  37. features of synovial joints-accesory structures- why do tendons of some msucles cross joints within capsule?
    it helps stabilize the joint
  38. types of movements of synovial joints- what is gliding movement?
    it is one flat bone or nearly flat bone simply gliding or sliding on the surface
  39. types of movements of synovial joints- what is flexion?
    -flexion decreases an angle and brings articulating bones together
  40. types of movements of synovial joints- what is extension?
    -it increases the angle between articulating bones
  41. types of movements of synovial joints- what is abduction?
    is moving away from the body trunk in frontal plane
  42. types of movements of synovial joints- Adduction
    is moving toward the body trunk in a frontal plane
  43. types of movements of synovial joints- What is circumduction?
    • it is performing all 4 directions
    • *abd,add, flex, ext
  44. types of movements of synovial joints- what is dorsi flexion?
    -flexing the foot, pointing fingers towards the leg
  45. types of movements of synovial joints- plantar flexion
    when one points the fingers
  46. types of movements of synovial joints- what is lateral or external rotation?
    if person moves foot outward
  47. types of movements of synovial joints- what is medial or inward movement?
    if person brings in her foot
  48. types of movements of synovial joints- What is supination?
    is the arm position during anatomical position
  49. types of movements of synovial joints- what happens to the radius during pronation?
    radius rotates over ulna
  50. types of movements of synovial joints- what is inversion?
    is moving the plantar inward
  51. types of movements of synovial joints- what is eversion?
    is moving the plantar outward
  52. types of movements of synovial joints- what is protraction?
    sticking the jaw out
  53. types of movements of synovial joints- what is retraction?
    bringing the jaw in
  54. types of movements of synovial joints- what is the elevation of the mandible?
    closing the mouth is the elevation of the mandible
  55. types of movements of synovial joints- depression of mandible?
    opening mouth is depression of the mandible
  56. types of synovial joints- what is a plane
    articular surfaces are flat or near flat and the only motion allowed is a gliding motion
  57. types of synovial joints- in what plane does a plane travel?
    it does not go in a particular plane so its nonaxial
  58. types of synovial joints- what is a hinge joint?
    allows movement in only one plane such as bending at elbow and knee
  59. types of synovial joints- in what plane does a hinge joint travel?
    • saggital
    • *it is a uniaxial
  60. types of synovial joints-what is a pivot joint?
    • is a joitnt which occurs in one plane
    • *uniplanar
    • *uniaxial
    • **shaking head or rotating from supintion to pronation
  61. types of synovial joints- what are condyloid joints?
    is a joint where there is a convex and concave surface fitting together.
  62. types of synovial joints- in how many planes and what planes can a condyloid joint do?
    -biaxial

    -circumduction
  63. types of synovial joints- what is a saddle joint?
    • opposing surfaces reciprocally have convex and concave surfaces
    • *the shape of a saddle
  64. types of synovial joints- how many planes can saddle joint do?
    it is biaxial
  65. types of synovial joints- what is a ball and socket joint?
    there is a ball like head of a bone that articulates with a cuplike socket of another bone
  66. types of synovial joints- how many planes can ball and socket joint perform?
    • triaxial
    • *circumduct and rotate

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