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  1. Atrophy
    Decrease or shrinkage in celluar size
  2. Physiological atrophy
    Occurs with early devolpement. ie. thymus
  3. Pathogenic atrophy
    Occurs as a result in decreases in workload, pressure, use, blood supply, nutrition, hormonal stimulation, and nervous stimulation.
  4. Disuse atrophy
    Skeletal Atrophy
  5. Hypertrophy
    Increase in cell size of cells and consequently in the size of the affected organ.
  6. Hyperplasia
    Increase in the number of cells resulting from an increased rate of cell division.
  7. Compensatory Hyperplasia
    Adaptive mechanism that enables certain organs to regenerate. ie. liver
  8. Hormonal Hyperplasia
    Occurs in estrogen-dependant organs. ie uterus and breast
  9. Pathogenic Hyperplasia
    abnormal proliferation of normal cells, in response to exessive hormonal stimulation or growth factors on target cells.
  10. Dysplasia
    abnormal changes in size, shape, and organization of mature cells.
  11. Metaplasia
    The reversable replacement of one mature cell type by another
  12. Hypoxia
    The lack of suffcient oxygen, cause of celluar injury
  13. Ischemia
    Reduced blood supply
  14. Reperfusion injury
    Reperfusion injury results from the generation of highly reactive oxygen intermediates
  15. Oxidative stress
    Occurs when excess ROS overwhelm endogenous antioxidant systems.
  16. Cellular swelling
    Common degenerative change, caused by the shift of extracelluar water into the cells.
  17. Programmed necrosis
    Necroptosis or Cellular Death
  18. Necrosis
    Sum of cellular changes after local cell death and the process of cellular self-digestion
  19. Autolysis
  20. Coagulative Necrosis
    Occurs in Kidneys, heart, and adrenal glands. Result from hypoxia or severe ischemia.
  21. Liquefactive necrosis
    Ischemic injury to neurons and gial cells in the brain.
  22. Caseous necrosis "Wisconsin necrosis"
    Results from M. Tuberculosis; combination of coagulative and liquefactive necrosis. "Clumps of Cheese"
  23. Fat Necrosis
    • Cellular dissolution cause by powerful enzymes; lipases;
    • Occur in breast, pancreas, and other ab structures
    • "Saponification", opaque-chalk white
  24. Gangrenous Necrosis
    • Results from severe hypoxic injury
    • blockage of lower leg
  25. Dry Gangrene
    Coagulative necrosis
  26. Wet Gangrene
    Neutrophils invade the site causing liquefactive necrosis
  27. Gas Gangrene
  28. Apoptosis
    • Cell Death
    • Active processĀ  of cellular self destruction
    • Programed cell death
    • normal and pathological tissue
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2013-09-05 22:41:15

Chapter 3 Cellular Adaptation
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