Biochemistry Ch. 1

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Biochemistry Ch. 1
2013-09-08 21:20:25
Biochemistry biochem bio chem

General information, definitions and questions. Ch.1 BIOCHEMISTRY Fourth Edition By: Reginald H. Garrett M. Grisham
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  1. Biomolecules
    (cellular constituents) All biomolecules contain Carbon, and frequently have Hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogen. They may also have a salts (i.e. Ca, P, Cl, K, S, Na, Mg, etc.).
  2. living organisms
    are complicated and highly organized.
  3. Organelles
    subcellular structure that make up cells.
  4. Macromolecules
    • Very large assemblies of polymeric molecules that form organelles(?).
    • Constructed through building blocks.
    • Macromolecules are: proteins, polysaccharides, polynucleotides (DNA and RNA), and lipds.
  5. What are the distinctive properties of living systems?
    • 1)living organism
    • 2)biological structures serve functional purposes.
    • 3) living system are actively engaged in energy transformations.
    • 4) living systems have a remarkable capacity for self-replication.
  6. Metabolites
    simple organic compounds that are intermediates in cellular energy transformation and in the biosynthesis of various sets of building blocks: amino acids, sugars, nucleotides, fatty acids, and glycerol.
  7. Building blocks
    • 1) amino acids
    • 2) sugars
    • 3) nucleotides
    • 4) fatty acids
    • 5) and glycerol.
  8. Steric acid
    • or HOOC--(CH2)16--CH3
  9. Cholesterol (Cyclic)
  10. B-Carotene (Branched)
  11. Chlorophyll a (Planar)
  12. Supramolecular complexes
    Interactions among macromolecules les to the next level of structural organization, known as Supramolecular complexes.
  13. Nucleus
    the respiratory of genetic information as contained within the linear sequences of nucleotides in the DNA of chromosomes.
  14. Mitochondria
    are the "power plants" of cells by virtue of their ability to carry out the energy-releasing aerobic metabolism of carbohydrates and fatty acids, capturing the energy in metabolically useful forms such as ATP.
  15. Van der Waals forces
    are the result of induced electrical interactions between closely approaching atoms or molecules as their negativity charged electron clouds fluctuate instantaneously in time.
  16. Van der Waals contact distance
    the interatomic distance that results if only Van der Waals forces hold two atoms together.
  17. Hydrogen bonds
    form between a hydrogen atom covalently bonded to an electronegative atom (such as oxygen or nitrogen) and a second electronegative atom that serves as the hydrogen bond acceptor.
  18. Ionic interactions
    are the result of attractive forces between oppositely charged structures, such as negative carboxyl groups and positive amino groups.