Medical Terminology--Chapter 2--Terms Pertaining to the Body as a Whole

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jchip524
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233149
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Medical Terminology--Chapter 2--Terms Pertaining to the Body as a Whole
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2013-09-16 15:55:00
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terms pertaining to the body as a whole
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  1. anabolism
    process of building up large protein pieces called amino acids
  2. catabolism
    process whereby complex nutrients are broken down to simple substances and energy is released
  3. cell membrane
    structure surrounding and protecting the cell. determines what enters and leaves the cell
  4. chromosomes
    rod-shaped structures in the nucleus that contains regions of DNA called genes. there are 46 (23 pairs) in every cell except or the egg and sperm cells, which only contain 23 individual, unpaired ________
  5. cytoplasm
    all the material that is outside the nucleus and yet contained within the cell membrane
  6. DNA
    chemical found within each chromosome. arranged like a sequence of recipes in code, it directs the activities of the cell
  7. endoplasmic reticulum
    network of canals within the cytoplasm of the cell. here, large proteins are made from smaller protein pieces
  8. genes
    regions of dna within each chromosome
  9. karyotype
    picture of chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell. chromosomes are arranged in numerical order to determine their number and structure
  10. metabolism
    total of the chemical processes in a cell. includes catabolism and anabolism
  11. mitochondria
    structures in the cytoplasm that provide the principal source of energy (miniature "power plants") for the cell
  12. nucleus
    control center of the cell. contains chromosomes and directs the activities of the cell
  13. adipose tissue
    collection of fat cells
  14. cartilage
    flexible connective tissue attached to bones at the joints
  15. epithelial cells
    skin cells that cover the outside of the body and line the internal surfaces of organs
  16. histologist
    specialist in the study of tissues
  17. larynx
    "voice box"; located at the upper part of the trachea
  18. pharynx
    throat. serves as a common passageway for food (from the mouth going to the esophagus) and air (from the nose to the trachea)
  19. pituitary gland
    endocrine gland at the base of the brain
  20. thyroid gland
    endocrine gland that surrounds the trachea in the neck
  21. trachea
    "windpipe" (tube leading from the throat to the bronchial tubes)
  22. ureter
    one of two tubes, each leading from a single kidney to the urinary bladder
  23. urethra
    tube from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body
  24. uterus
    the womb. the organ that holds the embryo/fetus as it develops
  25. viscera
    internal organs
  26. abdominal cavity
    space below the chest containing organs such as the liver, stomach, gallbladder, and intestines
  27. cranial cavity
    space in the head containing the brain and surrounded by the skull
  28. diaphragm
    muscle separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities. moves up and down and aids in breathing
  29. dorsal (posterior)
    pertaining to the back
  30. mediastinum
    centrally located space outside of and between the lungs
  31. pelvic cavity
    space below the abdomen containing portions of the intestines, rectum, urinary bladder, and reproductive organs
  32. pelvic
    pertaining to the pelvis; composed of hip bones surrounding the pelvic cavity
  33. peritoneum
    double folded membrane surrounding the abdominal cavity
  34. pleura
    double folded membrane surrounding each lung
  35. pleural cavity
    space between the pleural layers
  36. spinal cavity
    space within the spinal column (backbones) containing the spinal cord
  37. thoracic cavity
    space in the chest containing the heart, lungs, bronchial tubes, trachea, esophagus, and other organs
  38. ventral (anterior)
    pertaining to the front
  39. hypochondriac
    right and left upper regions beneath the ribs
  40. epigastric
    middle upper region above the stomach
  41. lumbar
    right and left middle regions near the waist
  42. umbilical
    central region near the navel
  43. inguinal
    right and left lower regions near the groin; aka iliac regions
  44. hypogastric
    middle lower region below the umbilical region
  45. RUQ
    right upper quadrent
  46. LUQ
    left upper quadrent
  47. RLQ
    right lower quadrent
  48. LLQ
    left lower quadrent
  49. cervical
    neck region (C1-C7)
  50. thoracic
    chest region (T1-T12)
  51. lumbar
    loin (waist) region (L1-L5)
  52. sacral
    region of the sacrum (S1-S5)
  53. coccygeal
    region of the coccyx (tailbone)
  54. vertebra
    single backbone
  55. vertebrae
    backbones
  56. spinal column
    bone tissue surrounding the spinal cavity
  57. spinal cord
    nervous tissue within the spinal cavity
  58. disk (disc)
    pad of cartilage between vertabrae
  59. anterior (ventral)
    front surface of the body
  60. deep
    away from the surface
  61. distal
    far from the point of attachment to the trunk or far from the beginning of a structure
  62. frontal (coronal) plane
    vertical plane dividing the body or structure into anterior and posterior portions
  63. inferior (caudal)
    below another structure; pertaining to the tail or lower portion of the body
  64. lateral
    pertaining to the side
  65. medial
    pertaining to the middle or near the medial plane of the body
  66. posterior (dorsal)
    back surface of the body
  67. prone
    lying on the belly (face down, palms down)
  68. proximal
    near the point of attachment to the trunk or near the beginning of a structure
  69. sagittal (lateral) plane
    lengthwise, vertical plane dividing the body the body or structure into right and left sides
  70. midsagittal plane
    divides the body into right and left halves
  71. superficial
    on the surface
  72. superior (cephalic)
    above another structure; pertaining to the head
  73. supine
    lying on the back (face up, palms up)
  74. transverse (axial) plane
    horizontal (cross-sectional) plane dividing the body into upper and lower portions
  75. abdomin/o
    abdomen
  76. adip/o
    fat
  77. anter/o
    front
  78. bol/o
    to cast (throw)
  79. cervic/o
    neck (of the body or uterus)
  80. chondr/o
    cartilage (type of connective tissue)
  81. chrom/o
    color
  82. coccyg/o
    coccyx (tailbone)
  83. crani/o
    skull
  84. cyt/o
    cell
  85. dist/o
    far, distant
  86. dors/o
    back portion of the body
  87. hist/o
    tissue
  88. ili/o
    ilium (part of the pelvic bone)
  89. inguin/o
    groin
  90. kary/o
    nucleus
  91. later/o
    side
  92. lumb/o
    lower back (side and back between the ribs and pelvis)
  93. medi/o
    middle
  94. nucle/o
    nucleus
  95. pelv/i
    pelvis, hip region
  96. poster/o
    back, behind
  97. proxim/o
    nearest
  98. sacr/o
    sacrum
  99. sarc/o
    flesh
  100. spin/o
    spine, backbone
  101. thel/o
    nipple
  102. theli/o
    nipple
  103. thorac/o
    chest
  104. trache/o
    trachea, windpipe
  105. umbilic/o
    navel, umbilicus
  106. ventr/o
    belly side of the body
  107. vertebr/o
    vertebra(e), backbone(s)
  108. viscer/o
    internal organs
  109. ana-
    up
  110. cata-
    down
  111. epi-
    above
  112. hypo-
    below
  113. inter-
    between
  114. meta-
    change
  115. -eal
    pertaining to
  116. -iac
    pertaining to
  117. -ior
    pertaining to
  118. -ism
    process, condition
  119. -ose
    pertaining to, full of
  120. -plasm
    formation
  121. -somes
    bodies
  122. -type
    picture, classification

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