GEOG150 - CH2 (external processes)
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Examples of external forces...
glacial (moving ice), fluvial (running water), Aeolian (wind), and coastal (wave) processes
Two distinctive types of glacial landforms
- those associated with erosional processes
- those associated with deposiitional processes
Erosional glacial landforms are created by...
the enormous carving power of moving ice, a force unmatched by any other external forces on the earth's surface
Depositional glacial landforms are created by...
rocks and other debris left by the ablation (melting ice) and sublimation (the changing from a solid directly to a gas form of water)that occurs in the lower part of the mountains
What are typical erosional glacial landforms where are they found in California?
- u-shaped valleys, hanging valleys, arêtes, horns, and cirques
- they are found over the highland areas of the Sierra Nevada
What are depositional glacial landform characteristics?
by varying sizes and shapes of rocks hat were moved long distances by glaciers
What are typical depositional glacial landforms and where are they found in California?
What are landforms that are shaped by running water called?
What is the type of erosional process of deepening valley forms in mountains?
What regions are dominated by fluvial landforms?
- Klamath Mountains
- North side of the Coast Ranges
In which regions is the rainfall rare, yet occasional storms will create a strong enough imprint on the surfaces to create fluvial landforms?
The Basin and Range regions and desert areas.
What are the landforms created by fluvial processes?
deepened valleys formed and widening valleys in mountain areas, dendritic stream patterns, deep gullies and rough rigid terrain forms
(1)____ _____ sea level is where fluvial processes create a deepened valley in mountains while (2)_____ __ sea level, fluvial processes widen valleys between mountains
What is the erosional Coastal process?
erosion occurs when the crashing waves of the ocean wear down land
What are examples of landforms found on the coast that are associated with erosional processes?
steep cliffs, sea caves and sea stacks
What are sea stacks?
isolated rocks along the coast with underlying geological structures connected to the mainland
How are sea stacks formed?
they form when the surface area connected to the coastal land was eroded away by the ocean waves
(1)____________ processes and landforms often coexist with (2)_________ processes and landforms along the (3)_______ area.
- 1. Depositional
- 2. erosional
- 3. coastal
What are examples of depositional coastal landforms in California?
beaches and narrow strips of sand deposited along the coasts
What is an aeolian process?
landforms that are shaped by winds
What areas are aeolian landforms found in?
sandy areas, such as sandy deserts and sandy coasts
What regions in California is there found evidence of aeolian processes?
Colorado Desert and along sandy coastal areas
What is an example of an aeolian landform?
Which landform is the least stable?
aeolian landforms, because they migrate and reshape all the time
What are moraines?
rolling small hills composed of rocks and debris deposited by melting glaciers that are often found along the foothills of glaciated mountains
What is a moraine called that marks the farthest advance of a glacier or ice sheet?
What is a moraine called that is found at the sides of a glacier?
What is a moraine called that is a sequence of terminal moraines that mark the retreat route of a glacier?
What moraine marks the farthest advance in any particular year?
recessional moraine / annual moraine
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