Ch. 2 Terms - Pathophysiology for the Health Professions

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Ch. 2 Terms - Pathophysiology for the Health Professions
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2013-09-06 00:37:05
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Ch. 2 Terms - Pathophysiology for the Health Professions
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  1. Abscess
    Localized pocket of purulent exudate in a solid tissue, like a tooth or in the brain.
  2. Adhesions
    Bands of scar tissue that are joining two surfaces that are normally separated.
  3. Anorexia
    Loss of appetite
  4. Chemical mediators
    Released when tissue injury occurs from damaged mast cells and platelets, inlcuding histamine, seratonin, prostoglandins, and leukotrienes.
  5. Chemotaxis
    When leukocytes are attracted to an area of inflammation to release their contents.
  6. Collagen
    Protein that is the basic component of scar tissue and provides strength for the new repair.
  7. Contracture
    Shortening of a muscle or scar tissue causing immobility and deformity of a joint or structure.
  8. Diapedisis
    Passing of leukocytes through intact capillary walls to a site of inflammation.
  9. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate
    Rate at whichred blood cells sediment in a period of one hour.  It is a common hematology test, and is a non-specific measure of inflammation.
  10. Exudate
    Collection of interstitial fluid formed in the enflamed area.
  11. Fibrinogen
    Fibrinogen is a protein produced by the liver. This protein helps stop bleeding by helping blood clots to form.
  12. Fibrinous
    Exudates that are thick and sticky and have a high cell and fibrin content and usually increases the risk of scar tissue in the area.
  13. Fibroblast
    Connective tissue cells
  14. Glucocorticoid
    can be a corticosteroid or steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and are synthetic chemicals that are related to naturally occurring glucocorticoids produced by the adrenal cortex gland.  Beneficial anti-inflmmatory effects.
  15. Granulation tissue
    Grows into the gap from nearby connective tissue in the healing process.
  16. Granuloma
    Small mass of cells with a a necrotic center and covered by connective tissue may develop around a foreign object such as a splinter, or as part of the immune response in some infections such as tuberculosis.
  17. Hematocrit
    Percentage of erythrocytes in a blood sample.
  18. Hematopoiesis
    Formation of bloodcellular components.
  19. Hydrostatic pressure
    Movement of fluid, electrolytes, oxygen, and nutrients out of the capillary at the arteriolar end.
  20. Hyperemia
    Increased blood flow to an area.
  21. Interferons
    Non-specific agents that protect uninfected cells against viruses.
  22. Intra-articular
    Into a joint
  23. Isoenzymes
    Cell enzymes that are found in the blood in the presence of severe inflammation.  May be helpful in locating the site of necrotic cells that have released the enzymes into the tissues and blood.
  24. Leukocyte
    A white blood cell, aka neutrophil
  25. Leukocytosis
    Increase in WBCs.
  26. Macrophage
    Vulture cells that randomly engulf bacteria, cell debris, or foreign matter.
  27. Malaise
    Feeling unwell
  28. Neutrophil
    A white blood cell, aka leukocyte
  29. Osmotic pressure
    Osmotic pressure is the pressure which needs to be applied to a solution to prevent the inward flow of water across asemipermeable membrane.
  30. Perforation
    Erosion through the wall
  31. Permeability
    When substances are more easily able to move into the interstitial space.
  32. Phagocytosis
    Process by which neutrophils and macrophages randomly engulf and destroy bacteria, cell debris or other foreign matter.
  33. Purulent
    Exudates that are thick and yellow-green in color and contain more leukocytes and cell debris as well as microorganism, usually part of a bacterial infection, called pus.
  34. Pyrexia
    Fever
  35. Pyrogens
    Release of these results in fever.  Can be WBCs or macrophages.  Circulate in the bloodstream and cause the body temperature control system in the hypothalamus to be reset at a higher level.
  36. Regeneration
    Healing process in damaged cells that are capable of mitosis.
  37. Replacement
    Takes place when there is extensive damage or the cells are incapable of mitosis, by connective tissue or scar formation.
  38. Resolution
    In a healing process, when there is minimal tissue damage and cells recover in a short period of time.
  39. Scar
    High content of fibrinous content in an area.
  40. Serous
    Watery exudates consisting primarily of fluid with small amounts of protein, usually happening with burns or allergic reactions.
  41. Stenosis
    Shrinking of the scar tissue that may cause shortening or narrowing of structures.
  42. Ulcer
    Open, crater-like lesion on the skin or mucous membranes.
  43. Vasodilation
    Relaxation of smooth muscle causing an increase in diameter of arterioles.

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