A&P chapter one

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A&P chapter one
2013-09-05 23:06:46

Beginner terminology
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  1. Anatomy
    the study of structure and form
  2. microscopic anatomy
    examines the structures that cannot be observed by the unaided eye
  3. cytology
    the study of body cells and their internal structure
  4. histology
    the study of tissue
  5. gross anatomy (macroscopic anatomy)
    investigates the structure and relationships of body parts that are visible to the unaided eye
  6. systemic anatomy
    studies the anatomy of each functional body system
  7. regional anatomy
    examines all of the structures in a particular region of the body as a complete unit
  8. surface anatomy
    focuses on both superficial anatomic markings and the internal body structure that relates to the skin covering them.
  9. comparative anatomy
    examines similarities and the differences in the anatomy of different species
  10. embryology
    it is the discipline concerned with developmental changes occurring from conception to birth
  11. Pathologic anantomy
    examines all anatomic changes with developmental and they examine both gross anatomic and microscopic structures.
  12. radiographic anatomy
    investigates the relationships among internal structures that may be visualized by specific scanning procedures
  13. physiology
    the study of the function of body parts
  14. cardiovascular physiology
    examines the functioning of the heart, blood vessels, and blood
  15. Neurophysiology
    examines how nerve impulses travel throughout the nervous system and how nervous system organs work
  16. respiratory physiology
    studies how respiratory gases are transferred by gas exchange between the lungs and the blood vessels supplying the lungs, among other things.
  17. reproductive physiology
    explores how the regulation of reproductive hormones can drive the reproductive cycle and influence sex cell production and maturation
  18. pathophysiology
    investigates the relationship between the functioning of an organ system and disease or injury to that organ system
  19. Levels of Organization
    • Chemical level
    • Cellular level
    • Tissue level
    • Organ level
    • Organ system level
    • Organismal level
  20. 6 characteristics of life
    • Organization
    • growth and development
    • metabolism
    • regulation
    • responsiveness
    • reproduction
  21. 11 organ systems
    • respiratory
    • lymphatic
    • endocrine
    • reproductive
    • muscle
    • cardiovascular
    • skeletal
    • integumentary
    • urinary
    • digestive
    • nervous
  22. Homeostasis
    the ability of an organism to maintain a consistent internal environment ( body temperature rises)
  23. Negative feedback
    coming from the opposite direction of the stimulus back to the set point (body temp and blood pressure)
  24. Positive feedback
    speeds up the stimulus until a climatic event and once the event occurs the body returns to homeostasis (breast feeding and child birth)
  25. Mediastinum
    the median space in the thoracic cavity that contains the heart, thymus, esophagus, trachea, and major blood vessels that connect the heart
  26. Serous membrane
    a thin layer of membrane that lines the organs of the ventral cavity. the parietal layer lines the internal surface of the body wall and the visceral layer covers the external surface of the organs within that cavity.
  27. Anatomical position
    when an individual stands upright with the feet parallel and flat on the floor, the upper limbs are at the sides of the body, and the palms face anteriorly; the head is level, and the eyes look forward toward the observer.
  28. Superior
    closer to the head
  29. inferior
    closer to the feet
  30. anterior
    in front of; toward the front surface
  31. Posterior
    in back of; toward the back surface
  32. Medial
    toward the midline of the body
  33. Lateral
    away from the midline of the body
  34. Proximal
    closest to point of attachment to trunk
  35. distal
    furthest from point of attachment to trunk
  36. deep
    on the inside, internal to another structure
  37. superficial
    on the outside
  38. Cranial
  39. Frontal
  40. Occipital
    Posterior aspect of the head
  41. Nuchal
    nape of the neck
  42. Orbital
  43. Nasal
  44. Oral
  45. Otic
  46. Buccal
  47. Mental
  48. Cervical
  49. Clavicular
  50. Thoracic
  51. Pectoral
  52. Sternal
    anterior middle region of the thorax
  53. Mammary
  54. Abdominal
    Region inferior to the thorax and superior to the hip bone
  55. Umbilical
  56. Pelvic
  57. Inguinal
  58. Pubic
    anterior region of the pelvis
  59. Scapular
    shoulder blade
  60. Vertebral
    spinal column
  61. Lumbar
    relating to the loins, or the inferior part of the back, between the ribs and pelvis
  62. Sacral
    posterior region between the hip bones
  63. Gluteal
  64. Perineal
    diamond-shaped region between the legs that contains the anus and external reproductive organs
  65. Axillary
  66. Branchial
    arm (portion of the upper limb between the shoulder and the elbow
  67. Antecubital
    region anterior to the elbow; also known as the cubital region
  68. Antebrachial
    forearm (the portion of the upper limb between the elbow and the wrist)
  69. Carpal
  70. Palmer
    Palm (anterior surface) of the hand
  71. Digital
    fingers or toes (also called phalangeal)
  72. Acromial
    outward end of the scapula or shoulder blade
  73. Olecranon
    posterior aspect of the elbow
  74. Manus
  75. Coxal
  76. Femoral
  77. Petellar
  78. Crural
    Leg (the portion of the lower limb between the knee and the ankle)
  79. Tarsal
    ankle, root of the foot
  80. Digital
    fingers or toes
  81. Popliteal
    area posterior to the knee
  82. Sural
  83. Calcaneal
    heel of the foot
  84. Pes
  85. Sagittal
    divides a structure into left and right portions that may not be equal, a plane that is parallel to the midsagittal, but either to the left or right.
  86. Transverse/horizontal
    divides the body or organ into superior and inferior parts
  87. Frontal/ coronal
    divides the body or organ into anterior and posterior parts
  88. Longitudinal
    divides an organ along its long axis
  89. Transverse
    cuts an organ at a right angle to the long axis
  90. Oblique
    cuts across the long axis at an angle other than a right angle