Advanced Artic Disorders P. 31-40

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  1. _____ is a subcortical structure that is located behind the basal ganglia.
  2. _____ is described as being the doorway through which subcortical
    systems of the nervous system communicate with the cerebral cortex.
  3. Practically every sensory impulse from the body passes through the ____ on its way to the cortex.
  4. ____ recieves neural motor impulses that have been processed, smoothed, and coordinated by the basal ganglia, the cerebellum, and the thalamus.
    Primary motor cortex
  5. The longest axons in the body originate from ____ and make up much of the descending motor tract, called the ______.
    primary motor cortex, pyramidal system
  6. T or F: The neurons of the primary motor cortex arranged in an inverted body scheme.
  7. T or F: The primary motor cortex is not the designer of purposeful ,sequenced movements.
    True. Only simple muscle contractions are observed upon stimulation.
  8. What is the principal role of the primary motor cortex?
    • A) take voluntary movement patterns that are formulated elsewhere
    • B) transmit them to the cranial or spinal nerves via a tract of motor neurons called the pyramidal system
  9. _____ are the neural pathways carrying motor impulses that travel from the cortex to the brainstem and spinal cord.
    Descending motor tract
  10. The pyramidal system is responsible for what kind of movement?
    Voluntary movement
  11. The descending motor tracts consist of what two systems?
    Pyramidal (Voluntary, fine motor movements) and Extrapyramidal (postural support)
  12. The fibers of the pyramidal system are divided into which two tracts?
    • A) corticospinal (axons descending from cortex and terminating in spinal cord)
    • B) corticobulbar tracts (axons descending from cortex and terminating in brainstem, eventually synapsing with the cranial nerves)
  13. T or F: the pyramidal system consists of motor neurons that make a mostly direct course from the cortex to the spinal cord (corticospinal) or to the brainstem (corticobulbar)
  14. Damage to the ____ usually causes muscle weakness and rapid fatigue, with patients reporting increases mental concentration needed to perform previously easy motor tasks.
    pyramidal system
  15. Unilateral damage to the pyramidal system results in ______
    Loss of fine motor movement in the articulators, also called unilateral upper motor neuron dysarthria (frequently in conjunction with aphasia)
  16. T or F: Damage that affects the pyramidal tract almost always will affect other neural tracts as well, with results that complicate the clinical picture.
  17. T or F: The term extrapyramidal refers to the motor pathways that are not part of the pyramidal system.
  18. _____ influences the reflexes, muscle tone, and some voluntary movements of the speech mechanism.
    Extrapyramidal system
  19. ____ are all descending motor fibers coursing through the CNS, that eventually make a synaptic connection to the motor neurons in the PNS.
    Upper motor neurons
  20. ____ are the motor neurons in the cranial and spinal nerves.
    Lower motor neurons
  21. Upper motor neuron damage results in _____.
  22. ______ is the result of bilateral upper motor neuron damage.
    Spastic dysarthria
  23. _____ results in muscles paralysis or paresis (weakness).
    Lower motor neuron damage
  24. Flaccid dysarthria is the result of damage to the ______ in those cranial nerves that innervate the muscles of speech production.
    lower motor neurons
Card Set:
Advanced Artic Disorders P. 31-40
2013-09-06 18:47:46
Motor Disorders

Advanced Artic
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