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What is Science?
a way to gain knowledge by a dynamic process of gathering and testing information.
What is a hypothesis and what isn't it?
- Proposed explanation of a set of observations that is testable and falsifiable.
- It is not a theory or a guess.
What is a theory?
Hypotheses or set of hypotheses for which many types and repetitions of experiments provide evidence.
What is the definition of Biology and name the groups associated with that?
- Biology is the "study of life"
- Processes and Activites
(What makes something alive?) what are they composed of and their definitions?
- All living things are composed of cells
- Unicellular or multicellular
- Prokayote - A cell that lacks a nucleus and other membrane-enclosed organelles; includes the bacteria and archaea. Simpler in form.
- Eukaryoke - An organism whose cells have nuclei and other membrane-enclosed organelles. Includes protists, fungi,plants and animals.
(What makes something alive?) What is the difference between biological growth and development?
- Growth - change is size and / or number of individual cells (duration can vary)
- Development - all changes that occur in an organisms (lifetime)
(What makes something alive?) How do organisms regulate metabolic processes?
Metabolism - all of the chemical activities in an organism / also the key in maintaining homeostasis (balance)
(What makes something alive?) Organisms respond to stimuli...what are some examples of stimuli and how do movement and locomotion differ?
- Stimuli - physical or chemical changes in their internal or external environment. Ex. (changes in color, intensity, or direction of light; in temperature, pressure, or sound; flowers to bees)
- Movement is moving without changing location.
- Locomotion is moving from one place to another.
(What makes something alive?) Organism reproduce...how do they reproduce and give definitions for each?
- Organisms reproduce Asexually and Sexually.
- Asexual - reproduce by themselves / they are genetically the same (ex. amoeba that has grown to a certain size and splits in two)
- Sexual - is carried out by the fusion of an egg and a sperm cell to form a fertilized egg.
(What makes something alive?) Populations evolve and become adapted to the environments...what is a population and adaptation?
- Population - Multiple of same species at the same place and time. (Individual organisms do not evolve - populations do)
- Adaptation - Inherited characteristics that enhance survival in a particular environment.
(How do Biologists organize things)...list two ways and define them?
- Reductionism - learning about a structure by studying its parts. (ex. cake and its ingredients) However, the parts don't tell the whole story.
- Emergent properties - characteristics not found at lower levels. (You begin to see these properties at the Cell Level)
(How do Biologists organize things)...What is Taxonomy and binomial nomenclature?
- It is the science of classification, naming organisms and putting them into a hierarchy.
- Carolus Linneaus (Father of Taxonomy)
- Binomial Nomenclature - This is the scientific naming of species. Always given 2 names - first part of the name is the genus (always capitalized), the second the specific epithet (not capitalized but whole name underlined or italicized).
(How do Biologists organize things)...What is systematics and name the orders and kingdoms?
- The study of how organisms are related to each other through time.
- KINGDOM, PHYLUM, CLASS, ORDER, FAMILY, GENUS, SPECIES (King Philip Came Over For Good Soup)
- There are 3 domains and 6 kingdoms - Bacteria, Archaea, (Eukarya) = Protista, Plantae, Animalia, Fungi
Name the multiple forms of information transfer?
DNA, RNA, Proteins, Hormones, Neurotransmitters, Electrical signals
Where does energy come from? Name the processes and how they work?
- It all starts with the SUN
- Photosynthesis - SUN + C02 + H2O IN and Gluscose + O2 OUT
- Cellular Respiration - Glucose + O2 + H2O IN and CO2 + Energy OUT (ATP Adenosine Triphospate)
What are Autotrophs and Heterotrophs? (These make up an ecosystem also)
- Autotrophs (producers) - Plants, algae, and certain bacteria that produces their own food from simple raw materials. (through Photosynthesis)
- Heterotrophs (consumers) - are organisms that depend on producers for food, and oxygen. (decomposers) - most bacteria and fungi obtain nutrients by breaking down nonliving organic material (ex. waste)
(How do populations change?) Define Evolution?
- Evolution - Change in the frequency of individuals with different traits over time.
- Frequency: Proportion / percent
- Individuals: A single organism
- Different traits: Genetic variation
- Time: Generations
(How do populations change?) Name the five ways populations change? (five finger formula)
- Gene flow: movement (pointer finger)
- Mutation: random occurrence (middle finger)
- Non random mating: (ring finger)
- Small population size: (pinky finger)
- Natural selection: (thumb) the only one Darwin came up with.
- If any of these act in a population, they will change its gene frequencies and evolve.
What was Darwin's observations of natural selection? Define it?
- Individual members of a population show variation.
- Organisms produce more offspring then will survive to reproduction.
- More individuals are produced then the environment can support, which leads to competition, predation, disease.
- Individuals with characteristics that allow them to survive to reproduction will pass on their adaptions.
- Natural Selection: Differential survival and reproduction of individuals with traits best suited to the environment.
Why are adaptations so important and why aren't all organisms the same?
So we don't get wiped out.
What are Organic and Inorganic substances?
- Organic: Carbon containing compounds, Large and complex molecules. (Ex. Carbs, lipids, proteins)
- Inorganic: Do not contain carbon, small, simple substances (Ex. water, simple acid and bases, simple salts)
What elements make up the bulk of an living organism?
Oxygen, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, and Carbon. (reminder: elements cant be broken down any further)
What is an atom?
- Atom - smallest portion of an element that retains its chemical properties. It is composed of subatomic particles...
- Protons and Neutrons - located in the Nucleus
- Electrons - orbiting around the Nucleus
What is the Atomic Number? (what else does this tell us by default) How many valence shells and how many electrons does each hold?
- Number of protons, unique to each element (tells us the number of electrons)
- 3 valence shells - 1st holds 2 max, 2nd holds 8 max, 3rd holds more than 8 but 8 makes happy.
What is the Atomic Mass number and isotopes?
- Atomic Mass - Sum of the protons and neutrons - this can be variable.
- Isotopes - is an atom of an element with different number of neutrons...atomic weight / mass - average of all the mass numbers of all the isotopes of an element.
What are some characteristics of Radioactive Isotopes?
- Nucleus decays spontaneously
- "Tracers" in scientific studies
- Medical uses
- Used in dating
- Potential health risks
What is the difference between Molecules and Compounds?
- Molecule - 2 atoms of the same element (bonded together)
- Compound - 2 atoms of different element (or more)
What is a Chemical bond, how many types are there? Name those types and define?
- Attraction that holds atoms together
- Type of bond depends on characteristics of atoms
- There are 3 types of bonds - Covalent (involves sharing), Ionic (involves stealing of electron), hydrogens (weakest)
- Note: (electrons can be so fickle)
What is an ion and what is an ionic bond?
- Atom or molecule with a charge due to gain or loss of an electron.
- Ionic bond - is an attraction of positive ion and negative ion.
- (This bond weaker than covalent and stronger than hydrogen)
What is a covalent bond, define nonpolar and polar?
- Two atoms share one or more of the outer shell electrons. (Strongest bond)
- Non - Polar - (Stronger) Electrons are shared evenly between the 2 atoms in the bond
- Polar - (Strong) Bonds are formed at an angle causing electrons to be shared unequally.
What is a Hydrogen bond?
- Form between polar molecules
- Weakest type of bond (Ex. water!!!)
What is a chemical reactions?
The making and breaking of bonds.
Water is a POLAR BOND...name it's unique characteristics that are VITAL to life?
- Cohesion - (ability to stick to itself)
- Adhesion - (water through plants)
- Surface Tension - (The Jesus Christ Lizard)
- Capillary Action - (move up small tubes)
- Moderates Temperature
- Versatile Solvent
What are the differences between acids and bases?
- Dissociate in water
- Electrolytes (can conduct electricity when in water)
- measured using pH scale
- Acids - a lot of H+ions (free ions not attracted to anything else)
- Bases - few H+ions
- Human blood = 7.35 - 7.45
- pH is based only on free H+ions
- Bound hydrogen ions do not contribute to pH