In film, it is called density. On the computer, it is called __________.
Two photographic factors that allow detail to be seen:
Typical OD range
.25 - 2.5
.25 is lower density; whiter
2.5 is higher density, darker
Instrument used to measure density.
What is density?
variations of darkness; the black and white
When changing density, do you use window level or window width?
What is the main controlling factor of density?
3 Lightening techniques:
Bright "hot" lights - higher intensity; higher amps (higher numbers) means more light penetrating
Digital optical scanner - adjust the settings
- an older machine reprints the film lighter/darker
main elements of the body that the x-ray interacts with:
hydrogen (water component, body tissue, low atomic #)
oxygen (water component, body tissue, low atomic #)
calcium (bone, high atomic #)
Does increasing mAs increase or decrease density?
Increasing mAs increases density.
Decreasing mAs decreases density.
What is the "rule of thumb" when increasing mAs to change density?
Double it to increase, Half it to decrease
How much of a change is needed, in mAs, before a change in density is discernible to the naked eye?
a 30% change.
If you need to increase the kVp by a certain percent, how do you go about it (mathematically)?
multiply the kVp by the percent needed with a 1. in front of it.
Example: to increase 15%, multiply by 1.15
If you need to decrease the kVp by a certain percent, how do you go about it (mathematically)?
multiply the kVp by the number you would add to the percent amount to make it equal 100, but with a decimal point in front.
Example: decrease 15%, multiply by .85
Example: decrease 60%, multiply by .4
What type of radiation are we using? What is special about it?
We use x-ray radiation. It is an ionizing radiation.
What is the main influencing factor of density?
To change the density by changing the kVp, what is the generalized rule for increments?
Change in 15% increments...the 15% rule
generators, listed from weakest energy to strongest energy:
Changing the kVp changes the ______ of the beam.
If you have good technique on a high frequency machine, what would you have to do if you changed to a single phase machine?
You would have to increase your technique since it's a weaker beam. It would need increased power to show the same image as well as a stronger machine.
causing pixel size to become larger than the nominal or state size; a distortion
Describe the expected influence of the focal spot on density when the unit has been properly calibrated.
There should be no difference between large and small focal spots.
What is the anode heel affect?
An effect that alters the intensity of radiation (and therefore the density) between the anode and cathode ends of the x-ray tube.
up to 45% difference depending on the angle of the anode
Which end always has greater image receptor exposure, the cathode end or the anode end?
the cathode end, by up to 45%. it gets "hotter"
The patient's head is located on the ______ side, and the feet are located on the _______ side.
Towards the cathode side, the density is ________.
Greater (up to 45%)
SID is short for:
Source-to-image receptor distance
What is the SID conversion formula?
Inverse Square Law
_ = ___
The law affects exposure in inverse proportions to the square of the distance.
As an example of the inverse square law, if you re exposed to 400mR of scatter radiation when 1 ft away from your patient, how much radiation are you exposed to if you move to 2 ft away from your patient? 4 ft away?
100mR at 2ft
25mR at 4 ft
In this class...what will we always do with distance when it comes to formulas?
Square anything to do with distance!!
When distance increases, density ____________.
When collimation increases, density __________.
When field size increases, density __________.
When beam restriction increases, density __________.
As field size decreases, intensity ___________.
decreases (exposed to less photons)
Increased filtration will ____________ density.
Filtration ___________ overall average energy of the beam.
As tissue thickness increases, film density __________.
What happens as the atomic number of tissue gets higher?
The tissue absorbs more of the x-ray, allowing less x-ray to pass through to the film. Therefore, the film density is less where there is tissue with high atomic number, making it look lighter. Bone is an example of tissue with a high atomic number.
Where is the highest atomic number in the body?
the teeth (because of the enamel)
Tissue type is affected by which 2 main factors?
the average atomic number
the density of the tissue
Does denser tissue increase or decrease density on the film?
You may have to __________the density when making large tube angles.
In pathology, an additive __________ density and creates an effect called __________.
additive: decreases density and is radiopaque.
In pathology, a destructive _________ density and creates an effect called _________.
destructive: increases density and is radiolucent.
Example of an Additive:
Fluid in the lungs (pneumonia)
Example of a Destructive:
When grid ratio increases, density ___________.
advantage: absorbs scatter; less reaches film
disadvantage: increases exposure to patient
Grid Conversion Formula
____ = ____
What is the GCF if there is no grid?
What is the GCF for the Grid ratio of 5:1?
What is the GCF for the grid ratio of 6:1?
What is the GCF for the grid ratio of 8:1?
What is the GCF for the grid ratio of 10:1?
What is the GCF for the grid ratio of 12:1?
What is the GCF for the grid ratio of 16:1?
Consider using a grid once the part being x-rayed reaches _______ in size.
Calcium is high in what type of absorption?
When Relative Speed (RS) increases, density ________.
RS conversion formula:
With the same technique, which would show the greater density, a pediatric cassette or a regular cassette?
With the same technique, which would show the greater density, a regular cassette or a fine detail cassette?
When film processing time increases, density __________.
When film processing temperature increases, density __________.
When chemical activity increases, density __________.
Describe the "formula reminder" for how to calculate density when working with mA and time.
If the density of matter is increased, then the density of the receptor is _________.
Density & Brightness are _________ porportional.
the more dense the an object the harder it will be for the xray to pass through and _____ will be absorbed.
When you measure with the Densitometer you want the numbers to fall within what range?
0.25 - 2.5
What is OD range?
how much light is transferred through
An increase in mAs causes an increase in chance of density and a ________ to exposure.
What is the difference between light radiographs and dark radiographs?
light radiographs lack adequate information.
dark radiographs have too much information (too dark)
The "Rules" for changes in technical factors can sometimes only apply to a _________________.
range of circumstances.
What is density a controlling factor for?
if you double mAs, then density is _____.
mAs is changed by a factor of __.
minimum ___ change to visualize change in density of radiographic image.
Increase in kVp does what to scatter? Why?
increase due to more energy
Change in kVp results in a change in the kinetic energy of what?
electrons in the tube
the more energy of electrons, the ____ they hit the anode.
if you decrease density by half what do you do to kVp?
kVp x .85
if you double density, what do you do to kVp?
kVp x 1.15
what affects average energy of the beam?
generator configuration (might be more accurate to change kVp to maintain density).
Single phase generator emits ____ density than high frequency.
High frequency generators emit ____ density than single phase.
Which type of generator exposes the patient more?
as you increase density, the energy of the generator _____.
Because single phase generator puts out less energy than a high frequency generator, it exposes the patient to more or less?
more bc the less energy the harder it is for xrays to pass through the mass and more is absorbed by the patient.
what kind of effect does the focal spot have on density?
What is the focal spot?
part of the disk where electrons hit the anode and produce xray
although the focal spot size has no effect on density it can have an effect on what?
Which side is positive the anode or cathode?
the altering intensity of the beam across the cathode/anode axis is called?
the anode heel effect
how does the electron travel?
goes from the cathode and hits the anode
where are xrays expelled from?
the anode heel
Why do you put the patient head on the end of the tube that has the cathode?
Bc it has a greater central ray intensity than the anode side
if you double distance you exposure is ____ of what it was.
if you increase distance and do not increase mAs, what happens to density?
if you increase your distance by half you get how many times the exposure?
4 (density is increased)
if you double mAs, decrease kVp by __?
If you half mAs, increase kVp by __?
A filter is like a ___?
increase in filtration will ____ density.
what is the key purpose of a filter?
reduce exposure to the patient
An increase in filtration causes an _______ intensity of ____ beams.
increase ; high
What absorbs low energy of xray?
Because higher energy rays are not filtered by the filter, they can go through the patient which ______ exposure to patient dose.
increase beam restriction ____ density.
The tissue thickness (density) increases as the anatomical number goes ____.
the thicker the part the ____ density on the IR.
radiopaque objects are ______to get through than radiolucent
the more radiolucent an object is the easier the beam can pass through so the ____ the density.
When scatter is absorbed to the grid, the xray absorbed to the IR is decreased causing density to ______.
a bigger part, causes _____ scatter.
An ______ in grid ratio will absorb more scatter.
If you increase the Relative Speed (RS), density _____.
What does relative speed mean?
how well the screen can emit light in a reaction to light
_______ resolution in lower speeds of relative speed.
High speed screens are used to ___ exposure.
The higher speeds cause increases in density, so you can ______ technique.
what is the AG readers magic number?
An increase in time, temp, and chemical activity during film processing causes density to _______.