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The kernel is the core of the operating system that is loaded into memory when the system boots up. It is responsible for controlling security, managing the file system, and providing a platform for applications to run on. The user rarely interacts directly with the kernel.
A driver is a type of computer program that enables the operating system to interact with hardware devices.
An interface is what allows the user to interact with the kernel and the utilities. There are two main types of interfaces: In command line interfaces, commands are executed through instructions written into a command line. Examples of command line-based interfaces are MS-DOS and aspects of Linux. In a Graphical User Interface (GUI), the user executes commands by clicking on graphics and symbols. An example of graphical user interface is Windows.
Command Line Interface
commands are executed through instructions written into a command line. Examples of command line-based interfaces are MS-DOS and aspects of Linux.
Graphical User Interface (GUI)
the user executes commands by clicking on graphics and symbols. An example of graphical user interface is Windows.
Utilities are the features or programs included with an operating system that perform system-related tasks. Common Windows utilities are My Computer and the Control Panel.
An application is a subclass computer program that is designed for end users. Examples are database, spreadsheet, and word processing programs. Applications frequently come in suites.
The desktop contains icons that access programs, files, applications, and file systems. The desktop is what is seen when all programs and open folders are minimized. Earlier versions of Windows installed many icons on the desktop; later versions moved many of these icons to the Start Menu, although installing an application often adds an icon to the desktop
The Start Menu is the easiest way to access the most useful things on your computer.The list of programs in the Start Menu are divided by a separator line into two sections: "pinned" (default) programs and the most frequently used programs. The Start Menu also contains default icons that provide quick access to important features and folders such as My Computer, My Documents, Help and Support, Search, Printers and Faxes, Run, and Control Panel. The Start Menu can be customized for each user. The appearance of the Start Menu is different with each Windows version. With the exception of Windows 7, you can use a "classic" style for the Start Menu to match the appearance of previous versions.
The Taskbar is the bar that is typically displayed at the bottom of a Windows Interface (although its position can be changed). The Taskbar: Contains icons that represent each program or application that is currently running. Can be configured to display different types of toolbars. For instance, Quick Launch is a toolbar that contains shortcuts to designated programs. In Windows 7, you can also pin programs to the Taskbar. You launch a pinned program by clicking the icon on the Taskbar.
The System Tray is a part of the Taskbar, usually located to the right of the Taskbar. The System Tray: Displays the time and date. Displays icons that represent the applications and processes that are running behind the scenes on your computer such as audio volume, security programs, and connectivity to the Internet or a work-group. In Windows Vista/7, the System Tray is referred to as the Notification Area.
Windows Explorer provides a graphical user interface for viewing and managing the file system.
My Computer (simply Computer in Windows Vista/7) is essentially Windows Explorer with a different name. Both provide an interface for viewing the contents of your computer including the file system, printers, and the network.
The Control Panel contains various utilities that change how a computer looks and behaves. Use the Control Panel to configure settings for hardware devices, manage printers and networks, configure personal settings, and manage the system.
The Sidebar provides a way to display information to which you desire quick and easy access. It is made up of small programs called gadgets that you can add or remove from the Sidebar. The sidebar is only available with Vista. Gadgets can display virtually anything, including weather forecasts, notes, time, news headlines, and stock quotes. Windows comes with default gadgets, but you can download additional gadgets. You can undock gadgets from the Sidebar and place them on the desktop. When you close the Sidebar, the undocked gadgets remain. With Windows 7, the Sidebar has been removed, with all gadgets being freely placed on the desktop.
Windows Aero is a set of features that improves the visual appearance of Windows. Features of Aero include: Glass effects on window borders that make borders semi-transparent (translucent). You can view objects behind windows through the window borders. Window animations when windows are opened or closed. Taskbar thumbnails show the contents of an open window when you move the mouse over items on the taskbar. Windows Flip shows thumbnails of running programs when you use the Alt + Tab keys to switch between running programs. Windows Flip 3D is activated with the + Tab key and shows an expanded 3D view of running programs. Aero features new to Windows 7 are:The Show Desktop button (on the right side of the Taskbar) hides all open windows. Hovering over the button makes the content of all open windows disappear (called Peek).Snap is a new feature that maximizes a window as you drag its border to the edge of the screen. Snapping multiple windows on the screen tiles them side-by-side.Shake lets you hide all but the current window. Click the top window border and shake the mouse to hide or unhide all other open windows. Windows Aero is available only in Vista and Windows 7, but is not available in the Home Basic versions. In addition, features depend on the graphics card in the system. For example, you might not be able to use Windows Flip 3D if the graphics card does not have the necessary features.
Windows Vista and Windows 7 include improved search features to help you find documents on your computer. Windows includes a new indexing service that catalogs objects and files on your computer to improve the speed of searches on your computer. The search is typically fast because it is not searching the complete hard drive but instead is looking through the index. Instant Search provides a box for typing keywords and phrases. As you type, matching results are displayed. Instant Search boxes are available on the Start Menu and in other applications such as Internet Explorer, Photo Gallery, and Media Player. Custom properties allows you to add tags or descriptions to files as attributes that can be easily searched or indexed. Search Folders lets you save a search as a folder. When you open the folder again, the search is performed and the results are displayed.
User Account Control (UAC)
User Account Control (UAC) is a feature introduced in Windows Vista that helps minimize the dangers of unwanted actions or unintended software installations. UAC differentiates between standard user privileges and administrative privileges. Icons next to some tasks identifies tasks that require administrative privileges. In addition, performing other tasks, such as installing applications or hardware devices, require administrative privileges. If standard user privileges are not sufficient to perform a task, the system requests privilege elevation. If you are logged on as a standard user, you are prompted to supply the username and password for an administrator user. If you are logged on as an administrator, you are prompted for permission before the action is performed.
Which Windows version(s) include the following features: Flip 3D, Gadgets, Snap, and Peek?
You are a desktop technician for a small company. You recently installed Windows Vista, yet you noticed that the Flip 3D feature is not available. You need to enable Flip #d. What should you do?
Install a video card that supports Aero
The Sidebar is a feature of which Windows version(s)?
Your computer currently runs Windows XP Professional.
How do you configure your computer so you can also launch programs from icons along the bottom of the screen.
Upgrade your computer to Windows 7. Pin programs to the Taskbar.
Which tools in Windows XP would you use to browse the files system on a drive? (select two)
- - My Computer
- - Windows Explorer
Which component of the Windows Vista interface uses gadgets to display information such as weather forecasts, time, and news headlines?
Which of the following items are likely to be displayed in the System Tray of a computer running the Windows operation system? (Select two)
- Volume control
- Current time
Currently have Windows XP Professional. You want to upgrade to the latest operating system, but want to use the classic style for the Start Menu.
What should you do?
Upgrade to Windows 7; customize the Start Menu settings.
Which component of Windows 7 prompts the user for credentials or permission to minimize the dangers of unintended software installations?
User Account Control (UAC)
How do you reduce the risk of ESD:
- Touch the computer case
- Use a static mat
- Use static floor mats
- Do not touch the component leads
- Store components in static-shielded bag (gray bag)
- Keep work area free of static producing materials (Plastic and Styrofoam)
- Maintain a Humid environment (between 40 - 70%) and temperature between 72-77 degrees. Avoid dry air in the computer repair location
- Alkaline batteries - Recycle if possible, otherwise dispose of in the regular trash.
- Notebook battery packs Button batteries - Considered hazardous waste. Return to manufacturer, recycle, or contact local authorities for disposal procedures.
- Monitor - Contact local authorities. CRTs contain many toxic and caustic substances that are illegal to incinerate and must be encased in cement before being buried. Also, discharge before disposal (CRTs can contain high voltages.).
- Power supply - Contact local authorities. Discharge before disposal (contains high voltages).
- PC system - Contact local authorities. Recycle if possible: the typical PC contains $5 to $25 worth of precious metals.
- Laser printer toner- Return to manufacturer for recycling (to clean up spills, use a toner vacuum or a scoop and a damp cloth; never use a regular vacuum).
- Ink-jet printer cartridges - Consult with local authorities for recycling possibilities.
- Cleaning solutions and solvents - Consult the MSDS, a licensed disposal organization, or local authorities for handling and authorized disposal procedures.
ESD is most likely to occur:
In a cool, dry atmosphere
Which of the following should be handled with caution due to high operating temperatures?
- Laser printer components
- Printing head of dot matrix printer
Of the following choices, which action could be most physically harmful to you?
Looking into the end of a fiber optic cable
Which of the following are safe methods of lifting heavy objects?
- Lift with your legs
- Bend your knees with your back straight
The fan in a 250-watt power supply is malfunctioning. What action should you take?
Remove and replace the power supply.
How do you get the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)?
Download them from the chemical manufacturer's Web sites.
Hard drives are best stored in a(n):
Static-shielded bag (gray)
What is the purpose of an MSDS?
Documents how to safely handle hazardous materials.
What device can store large amounts of electricity even when unplugged?
The top priority in a emergency and hazardous situation is:
Ensure the safety of people in the area
What is a myth regarding electrostatic discharge (ESD)?
If you can't feel ESD, the surge is not sufficient to harm computer components.
What two devices are the most susceptible to problems associated with ESD?
What are two safety benefits to encase cables running across the floor?
- Reduce tripping accidents
- Prevents wear
What component requires special disposal procedures to comply with environmental guidelines?
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