CHEM Ch. 1

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kmarken
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233344
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CHEM Ch. 1
Updated:
2013-09-07 13:28:41
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matter energy volume mass physical chemical pure substance mixture
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Basic Concepts About Matter
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  1. Chemistry
    • field of study
    • characteristics, composition, and transformations of matter
    • interactions between types of matter and/or energy
  2. Matter
    • anything that has mass and occupies space (mass = amount of matter)
    • Examples: plants, soil, rocks, air (not forms of energy like heat, light, and electricity)
  3. Mass
    • the amount of matter
    • independent of the physical state
    • Example: steam, water, and ice cubes are the same kind of mass
  4. Solid
    has a definite shape and a definite volume
  5. Liquid
    has an indefinite shape (takes the shape of container) and has a definite volume
  6. Gas
    has an indefinite shape and an indefinite volume (assumes the shape and volume of its container)
  7. What does the state of matter depend on?
    • temperature (increases molecules)
    • surrounding pressure
    • strength of the forces holding its structural particles together
  8. Volume
    • amount of space matter occupies
    • depends on the physical state
  9. Can water be found in solid, liquid, and vapor (gaseous) forms simultaneously?
    True/False
    TRUE
  10. Properties of matter
    • distinguishing characteristic of a substance that is used in its identification and description
    • Physical or Chemical properties
  11. Physical property
    • Observe without changing the chemical identity of a substance
    • Example: color and shape, solid liquid or gas, melting/boiling point
  12. Chemical property
    • describes the way a substance changes (or resists change) to form a new substance
    • Example: Flammability (or non-flammability), Decomposition at a high temp (or lack of decomposition), Reaction with chlorine (or lack of reaction with chlorine)
    • Most often the changes result from the reaction of a substance with one or more other substances
    • Sometimes energy (heat released; light released) can trigger a change (decomposition)
  13. Physical or Chemical property?
    A marshmallow gets black when roasting it in a campfire.
    Chemical (changed color)
  14. Physical or Chemical property?
    Zinc is a solid at room temperature.
    Physical (mentioned its a solid)
  15. Physical or Chemical property?
    When rubbing alcohol is rubbed on your skin, it evaporates very quickly.
    Physical (evaporation = liquid to gas)
  16. Why is Carbon Monoxide toxic?
    binds well to Hemoglobin
  17. How is Carbon Monoxide good?
    utilized in the production of steel which requires a series of high-temp reactions with Iron and Carbon Monoxide
  18. Physical or Chemical property?
    Iron metal rusts in an atmosphere of moist air.
    Chemical (The interaction of iron metal with moist air produces a new substance - rust)
  19. Physical or Chemical property?
    Mercury metal is a liquid at room temperature.
    Physical (Visually determining the physical state of a substance does not produce a new substance)
  20. Physical or Chemical property?
    Nickel metal dissolves in acid to produce a light green solution.
    Chemical (A change in color indicates the formation of a new substance)
  21. Physical or Chemical property?
    Potassium metal has a melting point of 63 degrees C.
    Physical (Measuring the melting point of a substance does not change the substance's composition)
  22. Physical or Chemical property?
    Titanium metal can be drawn into thin wires.
    Physical
  23. Physical or Chemical property?
    Silver metal shows no sign of reaction when placed in hydrochloric acid.
    Chemical
  24. Physical or Chemical property?
    Copper metal possesses a reddish-brown color.
    Physical
  25. Physical or Chemical property?
    Beryllium metal, when inhaled in a finely divided form, can produce serious lung disease.
    Chemical
  26. Physical Change
    • process in which a substance changes its physical appearance but not its chemical composition
    • Example: Change in physical state (melting, boiling, freezing, etc.); Change in state of subdivision with no change in physical state (pulverizing a solid)
  27. Chemical Change
    • process in which a substance undergoes a change in chemical composition
    • involves conversion of the material(s) into one or more new substances
    • Example: Decomposition; Reaction with another substance (methane reacts with oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water)
  28. Which one is an example of a chemical change?
    A) Pulverizing (crushing) rock salt
    B) Dissolving of sugar in water
    C) Melting a popsicle on a warm summer day
    D) Burning of wood
    D) Burning of wood (combustion reaction; burning is a chemical change involving oxygen)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. The fashioning of a piece of wood into a round table leg involves a _________ change.
    (physical or chemical)
    physical (the table leg is still wood. no new substances have been formed)
  30. The vigorous reaction of potassium metal with water to produce hydrogen gas is _______ change.
    (physical or chemical)
    chemical (a new substance, hydrogen, is produced)
  31. Straightening a bent piece of iron with a hammer is an example of a _______ change.
    (physical or chemical)
    physical (the piece of iron is still a piece of iron)
  32. The ignition and burning of a match involve a ______ change.
    (physical or chemical)
    chemical (new gaseous substances as well as heat and light, are produced as the match burns)
  33. The destruction of a newspaper through burning involves a ______ change.
    (physical or chemical)
    chemical
  34. The grating of a piece of cheese is a ______ change.
    (physical or chemical)
    physical
  35. The heating of a blue powdered material to produce a white glassy substance and a gas is a _______ change.
    (physical or chemical)
    chemical
  36. The crushing of ice cubes to make ice chips is a ________ change.
    (physical or chemical)
    physical
  37. Pure Substances
    • only one substance present
    • definite and constant composition
    • properties always the same under the same conditions
    • Example: water to carbon dioxide
  38. Mixture
    • physical combination of two or more pure substances
    • composition can vary
    • properties can vary with composition
    • each substance retains their own chemical identity
    • Example: salt water
  39. Homogeneous Mixture
    • one visible phase (part)
    • same properties throughout
    • Example: Koolaid, air, gasoline, brass
  40. Heterogeneous Mixture
    • two or more visible phases (parts)
    • different properties in different phases
    • Example: Chocolate chip cookies, soil, oil and water (not shaken)
  41. Pure Substance - Element
    • cannot be broken down into simpler pure substances by chemical means (such as a chemical reaction, and electric current, heat, or a beam of light)
    • building blocks for all other types of matter
    • 118 elements known
    • Example: gold, silver, copper
  42. Pure Substance - Compound
    • can be broken down into two or more simpler pure substances by chemical means (not physical means)
    • chemical combination of two or more elements
    • have definite, constant, elemental composition
    • Example: water, carbon dioxide, ammonia
  43. Breakdown of the 118 known elements
    • 88 occur naturally
    • 30 have been synthesized (lab created)
  44. Classify ice water
    (hetero, homo, pure substance, compound, element)
    • Does the sample of matter have the same properties throughout? NO=heterogeneous.
    • Are two or more different substances present? NO=pure substance. Can the pure substance be broken down into simpler substances? YES=compound
  45. Names & Symbols of Elements
    • some by first and second letter
    • some reflect their Latin derived names
    • some are named after names of people or places
    • John Dalton used to use picture symbols rather than letters (we don't use them anymore because many more have been discovered since)
  46. Greek Prefix for #1
    Mono-
  47. Greek Prefix for #2
    Di-
  48. Greek Prefix for #3
    Tri-
  49. Greek Prefix for #4
    Tetra-
  50. Greek Prefix for #5
    Penta-
  51. Greek Prefix for #6
    Hexa-
  52. Greek Prefix for #7
    Hepta-
  53. Greek Prefix for #8
    Octa-
  54. Greek Prefix for #9
    Nona-
  55. Greek Prefix for #10
    Deca-
  56. Classify XeF4 as:
    1) diatomic, triatomic, etc.
    2) homoatomic or heteroatomic
    3) element or compound
    • 1) pentatomic
    • 2) heteroatomic
    • 3) compound
  57. What do the chemical subscripts indicate?
    the number of atoms of each element present
  58. What is the Chemical Formula for H2O?
    • two atoms of hydrogen
    • one atom of oxygen
  59. What is the Chemical Formula for Ca3(PO4)2?
    • three atoms of calcium
    • two atoms of phosphorus
    • eight atoms of oxygen

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