Bio. 101

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Shelby21
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Bio. 101
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2013-09-08 18:23:03
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Chap. 3 quiz
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  1. Macromolecules are built from _______.
    smaller molecules
  2. ________ are the four major "classes" of macromolecules in living systems.
    • carbohydrates
    • lipids
    • proteins
    • nucleic acids
  3. Carbon has ______ valence electrons.
    4
  4. Carbon atoms can form ______ bonds with a large variety of other atoms.
    • single
    • double
    • triple
  5. ______ made of carbon and ______, can be branched or _______ chains or _______.
    • hydrocarbons
    • hydrogen
    • unbranched
    • rings
  6. ______ isomers are compounds that differ in the covalent arrangements of their atoms.
    structural
  7. ________ isomers are compounds that are different in the spatial arrangement of atoms or groups of atoms.
    geometric
  8. _______ isomers are molecules that are mirror images of one another.
    enantiomers
  9. The ______ of the major organic compounds are a consequence of the types and arrangements of _______ groups.
    • properties 
    • functional
  10. R-OH is the symbol for a ______ group, and its chemical nature is _______.
    • hydroxyl 
    • polar
  11. R-COOH is the symbol for a _____ group, and its chemical nature is _______.
    • carboxyl
    • acidic
  12. R-NH2 is the symbol for a ______ group, and its chemical nature is ______.
    • amino
    • basic
  13. Polymers are macromolecules produced by linking ______ together.
    monomers
  14. The process by which polymers are degraded into their subunit components is _______.
    hydrolysis
  15. _______ reactions are used to link subunits to build ______.
    • condensation 
    • polymers
  16. Carbohydrates contain the elements _____, ______, and ______ in a ratio of about 1:2:1.
    • carbon
    • hydrogen
    • oxygen
  17. The simple sugar ______ is an abundant fuel molecule in most organisms. In cells its structure is usually in a ______ form.
    • glucose
    • ring
  18. Disaccharides form when two monosaccharides are bonded by a ________ linkage.
    glycosidic
  19. Two examples would be common table sugar, _______, and the sugar of milk,________.
    • sucrose 
    • lactose
  20. Long chains of ______ link together to form a polysaccharide.
    simple sugars (monosaccharides)
  21. _______ is the main storage carbohydrate of plants.
    starch
  22. Starch occurs in two forms. The simpler form, _______, is unbranched
    amylose
  23. Plant cells store starch in organelles called _______.
    amyloplasts
  24. _______ is the main storage carbohydrate of animals.
    Glycogen
  25. _______ is the most abundant carbohydrate on earth and is used to make plant _______.
    • cellulose
    • cell walls
  26. _______ is a complex carbohydrate that forms the external skeleton of arthropods.
    Chitin
  27. A carbohydrate combined with a protein forms _______; carbohydrates combined with lipids are called ________.
    • glycoproteins
    • glycolipids
  28. Lipids are not defined by _______ but by being _______ in water.
    • structure
    • insoluble
  29. Lipids are composed of the elements _______.
    • carbon
    • hydrogen
    • oxygen
  30. A triacylglycerol consists of one ______ molecule combined with 3 ______ molecules.
    • glycerol
    • fatty acid
  31. These molecules are commonly called _______ and are used for energy _______.
    • fats 
    • storage
  32. Saturated fatty acids are solid due to _______.
    van der Waals interaction
  33. Unsaturated fats are ______ due to the presence of carbon ________.
    • liquid
    • double bonds
  34. Trans fats are produced by _____ and mimic _______.
    • hydrogenation
    • saturated fats
  35. A phospholipid molecule assumes a distinctive configuration in water because of its _______ property, which means that one end of the molecule is hydrophilic and the other is hydrophobic.
    amphipathic
  36. They are made of a _______ attached to one end to two ______ and at the other end to a _______ group attache to an _______ compound.
    • glycerol molecule
    • fatty acids 
    • phosphate
    • organic
  37. Carotenoids consist of five-carbon hydrocarbon monomers known as _______. Animals convert these pigments to _______.
    • isoprene units
    • vitamin A
  38. A steroid consist of ______ atoms arranged in four attache rings, three of which contain ______ carbon atoms and the fourth contains ______.
    • carbon
    • six
    • five
  39. _______ is an important example in animal cell membranes.
    Cholesterol
  40. Some chemical mediators are produced by the modification of ______ that have been removed form phospholipids.
    fatty acids
  41. All amino acids contain _______ groups but vary in the _______ group.
    • amino and carboxyl
    • radical (R)
  42. _______ amino acids are ones animals cannot synthesize.
    Essential
  43. The bonds that join the subunits of proteins are called ______ bonds.
    peptide
  44. Proteins are large, complex molecules made of subunits called _______.
    amino acids
  45. This bond occurs between the _____ group of one amino acid and the ______ group of the other.
    • amino
    • carboxyl
  46. The ______ of a protein is its 3-D shape, which is key to its _______.
    • conformation 
    • function
  47. The levels of organization distinguishable in protein molecules are __________________.
    • primary
    • secondary
    • tertiary
    • quaternary
  48. The amino acid sequence is the primary structure of a _______ and is what other levels are derived from.
    polypeptide chain
  49. Secondary structure results from _______ bonding involving the backbone. The 2 most common types are ______ and ______.
    • hydrogen
    • x-helix
    • b-pleated sheets
  50. Tertiary structure depends on interactions among ______ and generates the _____ of the overall molecule.
    • side chains
    • shape
  51. Quaternary structure results from interactions among ______ to generate a functional protein.
    polypeptides
  52. ______ helps proteins fold.
    molecular chaperones
  53. The conformation of a protein determines its _______.
    function
  54. When a proteins loses its shape and function it is called _________.
    denaturation
  55. 3 examples of human disease cause by misfolded proteins are _____, ______, and ______.
    • Alzheimer's
    • Huntington's
    • mad cow
  56. Nucleic acids consist of ______ subunits.
    nucleotide
  57. Each nucleotide subunit in a nucleic acid is composed of a ______ _______ nitrogenous base, a five-carbon ______, and an inorganic ______ group.
    • purine or pyrimidine
    • sugar
    • phosphate
  58. Nucelotides are connected by _________.
    phopodiester linkages
  59. Energy for life functions is supplied mainly by the nucleotide ______.
    ATP
  60. A compound that has the same molecular formula as another compound but a different structure and different properties.
    isomer
  61. A large molecule consisting of thousands of atoms.
    macromolecule
  62. A single organic compound that links with similar compounds in the formation of a polymer.
    monomer
  63. The degradiation of a compound by the addition of water.
    hydrolysis
  64. A simple sugar.
    monosaccharide
  65. A sugar that consists of six carbons.
    hexose
  66. Two monosaccharides covalently bonded to one another.
    disaccharide
  67. A macromolecule consisting of repeating unit of simple sugars.
    polysaccharide
  68. A starch-forming granule.
    amyloplast
  69. A compound formed of one fatty acid and one glycerol molecule.
    monoacylglycerol
  70. A compound formed of two fatty acids and one glycerol molecule.
    diacylglycerol
  71. A compound formed of three fatty acids and on glycerol molecule.
    triacylglycerol
  72. Having one hydrophilic end and one hydrophobic end.
    amphipathic
  73. A compound consisting of two amino acids.
    dipeptide
  74. A compound consisting of a long chain of amino acids.
    polypeptide
  75. A sugar that consists of five carbons.
    pentose
  76. A molecule composed of one or more phosphate groups, a 5-carbon sugar, and a nitrogenous base.
    Nucleotide
  77. A group of yellow to orange pigments in plants.
    Carotenoid
  78. A large complex organic compound composed of chemically linked amino acid subunits.
    Protein
  79. Complex lipid molecules containing carbon atoms arranged in four interlocking rings.
    Steroid
  80. An organic compound containing an amino group and a carboxyl group.
    Amino acid
  81. The 3-D structure of a protein molecule.
    tertiary sturcture
  82. An organic compound that is made up of only carbon and hydrogen atoms.
    Hydrocarbon
  83. Fatlike substance found in cell membranes.
    phospholipid
  84. Polysaccharide used by plants to store energy.
    starch
  85. The principle carbohydrate stored in animal cells.
    Glycogen

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