Card Set Information
Chap. 3 quiz
Macromolecules are built from _______.
________ are the four major "classes" of macromolecules in living systems.
Carbon has ______ valence electrons.
Carbon atoms can form ______ bonds with a large variety of other atoms.
______ made of carbon and ______, can be branched or _______ chains or _______.
______ isomers are compounds that differ in the covalent arrangements of their atoms.
________ isomers are compounds that are different in the spatial arrangement of atoms or groups of atoms.
_______ isomers are molecules that are mirror images of one another.
The ______ of the major organic compounds are a consequence of the types and arrangements of _______ groups.
R-OH is the symbol for a ______ group, and its chemical nature is _______.
R-COOH is the symbol for a _____ group, and its chemical nature is _______.
is the symbol for a ______ group, and its chemical nature is ______.
Polymers are macromolecules produced by linking ______ together.
The process by which polymers are degraded into their subunit components is _______.
_______ reactions are used to link subunits to build ______.
Carbohydrates contain the elements _____, ______, and ______ in a ratio of about 1:2:1.
The simple sugar ______ is an abundant fuel molecule in most organisms. In cells its structure is usually in a ______ form.
Disaccharides form when two monosaccharides are bonded by a ________ linkage.
Two examples would be common table sugar, _______, and the sugar of milk,________.
Long chains of ______ link together to form a polysaccharide.
simple sugars (monosaccharides)
_______ is the main storage carbohydrate of plants.
Starch occurs in two forms. The simpler form, _______, is unbranched
Plant cells store starch in organelles called _______.
_______ is the main storage carbohydrate of animals.
_______ is the most abundant carbohydrate on earth and is used to make plant _______.
_______ is a complex carbohydrate that forms the external skeleton of arthropods.
A carbohydrate combined with a protein forms _______; carbohydrates combined with lipids are called ________.
Lipids are not defined by _______ but by being _______ in water.
Lipids are composed of the elements _______.
A triacylglycerol consists of one ______ molecule combined with 3 ______ molecules.
These molecules are commonly called _______ and are used for energy _______.
Saturated fatty acids are solid due to _______.
van der Waals interaction
Unsaturated fats are ______ due to the presence of carbon ________.
Trans fats are produced by _____ and mimic _______.
A phospholipid molecule assumes a distinctive configuration in water because of its _______ property, which means that one end of the molecule is hydrophilic and the other is hydrophobic.
They are made of a _______ attached to one end to two ______ and at the other end to a _______ group attache to an _______ compound.
Carotenoids consist of five-carbon hydrocarbon monomers known as _______. Animals convert these pigments to _______.
A steroid consist of ______ atoms arranged in four attache rings, three of which contain ______ carbon atoms and the fourth contains ______.
_______ is an important example in animal cell membranes.
Some chemical mediators are produced by the modification of ______ that have been removed form phospholipids.
All amino acids contain _______ groups but vary in the _______ group.
amino and carboxyl
_______ amino acids are ones animals cannot synthesize.
The bonds that join the subunits of proteins are called ______ bonds.
Proteins are large, complex molecules made of subunits called _______.
This bond occurs between the _____ group of one amino acid and the ______ group of the other.
The ______ of a protein is its 3-D shape, which is key to its _______.
The levels of organization distinguishable in protein molecules are __________________.
The amino acid sequence is the primary structure of a _______ and is what other levels are derived from.
Secondary structure results from _______ bonding involving the backbone. The 2 most common types are ______ and ______.
Tertiary structure depends on interactions among ______ and generates the _____ of the overall molecule.
Quaternary structure results from interactions among ______ to generate a functional protein.
______ helps proteins fold.
The conformation of a protein determines its _______.
When a proteins loses its shape and function it is called _________.
3 examples of human disease cause by misfolded proteins are _____, ______, and ______.
Nucleic acids consist of ______ subunits.
Each nucleotide subunit in a nucleic acid is composed of a ______ _______ nitrogenous base, a five-carbon ______, and an inorganic ______ group.
purine or pyrimidine
Nucelotides are connected by _________.
Energy for life functions is supplied mainly by the nucleotide ______.
A compound that has the same molecular formula as another compound but a different structure and different properties.
A large molecule consisting of thousands of atoms.
A single organic compound that links with similar compounds in the formation of a polymer.
The degradiation of a compound by the addition of water.
A simple sugar.
A sugar that consists of six carbons.
Two monosaccharides covalently bonded to one another.
A macromolecule consisting of repeating unit of simple sugars.
A starch-forming granule.
A compound formed of one fatty acid and one glycerol molecule.
A compound formed of two fatty acids and one glycerol molecule.
A compound formed of three fatty acids and on glycerol molecule.
Having one hydrophilic end and one hydrophobic end.
A compound consisting of two amino acids.
A compound consisting of a long chain of amino acids.
A sugar that consists of five carbons.
A molecule composed of one or more phosphate groups, a 5-carbon sugar, and a nitrogenous base.
A group of yellow to orange pigments in plants.
A large complex organic compound composed of chemically linked amino acid subunits.
Complex lipid molecules containing carbon atoms arranged in four interlocking rings.
An organic compound containing an amino group and a carboxyl group.
The 3-D structure of a protein molecule.
An organic compound that is made up of only carbon and hydrogen atoms.
Fatlike substance found in cell membranes.
Polysaccharide used by plants to store energy.
The principle carbohydrate stored in animal cells.