Biochemistry Chapter 1

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  1. prebiotic era
    The time period between the formation of the earth (4.6 billion years ago) and the appearance of living organisms at least 3.5 billion years ago.
  2. organic compound
    A compound that contains the element carbon
  3. functional group
    A portion of a molecule that participates in interactions with other substances. Common functional groups in biochemistry are acyl, amido, amino, carbonyl, diphosphoryl (pyrophosphoryl), ester, ether, hydroxyl, imino, phosphoryl, and sulfhydryl groups.
  4. linkages
    bonding arrangements
  5. polymer
    A molecule consisting of numerous smaller units that are linked together in an organized manner. Polymers may be linear or branched and may consist of one or more kinds of structural units (monomers).
  6. condensation reaction
    The formation of a covalent bond between two molecules, during which the elements of water are lost; the reverse of hydrolysis.
  7. hydrolysis
    The cleavage of a covalent bond accomplished by adding the elements of water; the reverse of a condensation.
  8. monomer
    (1) A structural unit from which a polymer is built up. (2) A single subunit or protomer of a multisubunit protein
  9. replication
    The process of making an identical copy of a DNA molecule. During DNA replication the parental polynucleotide strands separate so that each can direct the synthesis of of a complementary daughter strand, resulting in two complete DNA helices.
  10. natural selection
    The evolutionary process by which the continued existence of of a replicating entity depends on its ability to survive and reproduce under the existing conditions.
  11. vesicle
    A fluid filled sac enclosed by a membrane
  12. compartmentation
    The division of a cell into smaller functionally discrete systems.
  13. precursor
    An entity that gives rise, through a process such as evolution or chemical reaction, to another entity.
  14. catalyst
    A substance that promotes a chemical reaction without itself undergoing permanent change. A catalyst increases the rate at which a reaction approaches equilibrium but does not affect the free energy change of the reaction.
  15. eukaryote
    An organism consisting of a cell (or cells) whose genetic material is contained in a membrane bound nucleus.
  16. nucleus
    The membrane-enveloped organelle in which the eukaryotic cell's genetic material is located.
  17. prokaryote
    A unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bounded nucleus. All bacteria are prokaryotes.
  18. virus
    A nonliving entity that co-opts the metabolism of a host cell to reproduce.
  19. cytoplasm
    The entire contents of a cell excluding the nucleus.
  20. organelle
    A differentiated structure within a eukaryotic cell, such as a mitochondrion, ribosome, or lysosome, that performs specific functions.
  21. endoplasmic reticulum
    A labyrinthine membranous organelle in eukaryotic cells in which membrane lipids are synthesized and proteins destined for secretion, membrane insertion, and residence in certain organelles undergo posttranslational modification.
  22. Golgi apparatus
    A eukaryotic organelle consisting of a set of flattened membranous sacs in which newly synthesized proteins and lipids are modified.
  23. mitochondrion
    The double membrane enveloped eukaryotic organelles in which aerobic metabolic reactions occur, including those of the citric acid cycle, fatty acid oxidation, and oxidative phosphorylation.
  24. chloroplast
    The plant organelles in which photosynthesis takes place.
  25. lysosome
    A membrane-bounded organelle in a eukaryotic cell that contains a battery of hydrolytic enzymes and which functions to digest ingested material and to recycle cell components.
  26. peroxisome
    A eukaryotic organelle with specialized oxidative functions.
  27. vacuole
    An intracellular vesicle for storing water or other molecules.
  28. cytosol
    The contents of a cell excluding its nucleus and other membrane-bounded organelles.
  29. cytoskeleton
    The network of intracellular fibers that gives a cell its shape and structural rigidity.
  30. taxonomy
    The study of biological classification.
  31. phylogeny
    The study of the evolutionary relationships among organisms.
  32. archaea
    One of the two major groups of prokaryotes (the other is eubacteria). Also known as archaebacteria.
  33. bacteria
    The organisms comprising the two major groups of prokaryotes, the archaea and eubacteria.
  34. eukarya
  35. methanogens
  36. halobacteria
  37. thermophiles
  38. symbiosis
  39. mutation
  40. thermodynamics
  41. system
  42. surroundings
  43. U
  44. q
  45. w
  46. H
  47. qp
  48. D
  49. kD
  50. molecular weight, Mr
  51. spontaneous process
  52. W
  53. S
  54. kB
  55. G
  56. exergonic
  57. endergonic
  58. equilibrium
  59. state function
  60. GA
  61. GA°
  62. standard state
  63. equilibrium constant
  64. Le Chatelier's principle
  65. van't Hoff plot
  66. activity
  67. isolated system
  68. closed system
  69. open system
  70. steady state
  71. enzyme
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Biochemistry Chapter 1
2013-09-08 07:40:28
biochemistry Fundamentals Biochemistry

biochemistry chapter 1
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