Drug Side Effects - JRCALC 2013 EEAST
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0.9% Sodium Chloride
Over-Infusion may precipitate pulmonary oedema and cause breathlessness.
- Feeling of tension
- Peripheral vasodilatation
- Muscle cramps
Rapid infusion might rarely cause hypotension.
Non-humidified O2 is drying and irritating to the mucous membranes over a period of time.
In patients with COPD there is a risk that even moderately high doses of inspired oxygen can produce increased carbon dioxide levels which may cause respiratory depression and this may lead to respiratory arrest.
In patients who are physically dependant on opiates, Naloxone may precipitate violent withdrawal symptoms, including cardiac dysrhythmias. It is better, in these cases to titrate the dose of Naloxone to effectively reverse cardiac and respiratory depression, but still leave the patient in a 'groggy' state with regular reassessment of ventilation and circulation.
- Respiratory depression
- Cardiovascular depression
- Nausea and vomiting
- Pupillary Constriction
- The side effects of buccal Midazolam are similar in effect to IV administration, although, the timings may differ:· Respiratory Depression
- Muscle Weakness
- Slurred Speech
- Occasionally agitation, restlessness and disorientation may occur.
- Drowsiness and restlessness
- Cardiac conduction abnormalities following IV administration.
- Nausea and vomiting
- Dry Mouth (Common)
- Difficulty in passing urine and/or constipation.
- Tachycardia/arrhythmia Paroxysmal tightness of the chest
- Allergic reaction.
Sodium phosphate may cause burning or itching sensation in the groin if administered too quickly.
There are no listed side effects in JRCALC 2013
Glucose 40% Oral Gel
There are no side effects to the use of Glucose 40% Gel
There are no side effects to the use of 10% Glucose
- Nausea, vomiting.
- Acute hypersensitivity reaction (rare)
- Gastro-intestinal disturbances
Minimal side effects
Respiratory depression may occur, especially in the presence of alcohol, which enhances the depressive side effect of diazepam, in addition opioid drugs also enhance the cardiac and respiratory depressive effect of diazepam.
Hypotension may occur. This may be significant if the patient has to be moved from a horizontal position to allow for extrication from the address. Caution should therefore be exercised and consideration given to either removing the patient flat or, if fitting has stopped and it is considered safe, allowing a 10 minute recovery period prior to removal.
Drowsiness and light-headedness, confusion and unsteadiness.
Occasionally amnesia may occur.
- Abdominal pain
- Bleeding (gastrointestinal and intracranial) – the occurrence of severe bleeding is similar to that observed with the administration of aspirin.
- Dry mouth
- Blurred vision
- Psychomotor impairment
- Gastrointestinal disturbance
- Transient hypotension
- Convulsions (Rare)
The elderly are more likely to suffer side effects
Warn anyone receiving Chlorphenamine against driving or undertaking any other complex psychomotor task, due to the sedative and psychomotor side effects.
Benzylpenicillin (Penicillin G)
No listed side effects in JRCLAC 2013
- Dry mouth, visual blurring and pupil dilation.
- Confusion and occasional hallucinations.
- In the elderly retention of urine may occur.
Do not use small (<100 micrograms) doses as they may cause paroxysmal bradycardia.
- Gastric Bleeding
- Wheezing in some asthmatics
- Vasodilation causing hypotension, flushing.
- Arrhythmias – Torsades de pointes
There are no side effects listed in JRCALC 2013 for adrenaline
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