Psy Chapter 1
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What is the meaning of the word "psychology"?
It comes from the Greek words "psyche", meaning "mind" and "logos" meaning "study".
It is the scientific study of the mind.
Who is the founder of psychology?
Wilhelm Wundt founded a psychology lab in Leipzig, Germany in 1879.
Name the six views that psychology was founded upon.
What was Wilhelm Wundt's method of studying mental experiences?
The method was called introspection- careful self-examination and reporting of one's conscious experiences.
Who founded structuralisim? Define this method.
Structuralisim was founded by Wilhelm Wundt and Edward Titchener.
The method was to define the structure of the mind by breaking down mental experiences into the component parts.
Who was the first American to work in Wundt's lab?
G. Stanley Hall, founder of the American Psychological Association.
When was the first American psychology lab founded? Where was it located?
The first American psychology lab was founded in 1883 at Johns Hopkins University by G. Stanley Hall.
When was the APA founded?
Who founded Functionalisim? Define Functionalisim.
Functionalisim is defined as how behavior helps individuals adapt to demands placed upon them in their environment.
Who founded Behaviorisim? Define it.
John Watson founded Behaviorisim
Behaviorisim is based on the study of behaviors that observers could record and measure.
He agreed with Aristotle's view that science should rely on observable, measureable events.
Who founded Gestalt psychology? Define Gestalt psychology.
Gestalt psychology is defined as the type of psychology that studies the ways in which the brain organizes and structures our perceptions of the world. (Everything as a whole, not in pieces)
Who founded Psychodynamic perspective? Define it.
Sigmund Freud founded the psychodynamic perspective.
It's based on sex, aggression, unresolved conflict as a child, and the unconscious.
Name the six contemporary views of psychology.
- Behaviorial perspective
- Psychodynamic perspective
- Humanistic perspective
- Physiological Perspective
- Cognitive Perspective
- Sociocultural Perspective
What is the behaviorial perspective?
It focuses on observable behavior, and ways to modify it.
What is social-cognitive theory?
Social-cognitive theory originated in the 1960s and focused on objects or goals and the outcome of said "objects or goals". (If I do X, then Y will follow.)
What is behavior therapy and who founded it?
It is the application of principles founded in Watson and Skinner's behaviorist tradition, that psychologists help a client change his/her behavior to help their psychological problem.
What is the Humanistic Perspective?
The Humanistic perspective was developed by Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers.
They developed the theory that each individual has different perspectives on life.
Free will and conscious choice are essential aspects of the human experience.
Client and Dr. are equally responsible for the wellness of the client.
What is the Physiological perspective?
It focuses on the body(biological processes), and how it relates to the psychological behavior of the client.
Dr.s mainly prescribe meds to fix whatever psychological problem arises.
What is Evolutionary Psychology?
It focuses on the behavioral tendencies that we have (predispositions) that might be rooted in our genes, passed down from older generations.
It was derived from Charles Darwin's theory of evolution.
What is the Cognitive perspective?
The cognitive perspective is the study of how we acquire knowledge- how we learn, form concepts, solve problems, make decisions, and use language.
The word cognitive comes from the Latin word "cognitio" meaning knowledge.
What is the Sociocultural perspective?
Psychologists study the behavior that is shaped by social and cultural influences in which the client is exposed to.
What is positive psychology?
It focuses on the positive aspects of human life, such as love, hope, happiness etc.
Psychologists in this area focus on understanding of human weaknesses, such as emotional problems, traumatic stress, violence, and drug abuse.
By using the positive things in life it balances the scale by focusing on our good qualities, not our bad ones.
What are experimental psychologists?
They apply experimental methods to the study of behavior and mental processes.
What are comparative psychologists?
They are experimental psychologists that focus on animal behavior and what it might teach us about our behavior.
What is a clinical psychologist?
They are the people that treat clients with disorders, such as anxiety or depression.
What are counseling psychologists?
They are psychologists that treat clients with issues that are not as severe as anxiety or depression, such as adjusting to college or marital problems.
What are school psychologists?
They work in school systems, primarily to help students with academic, emotional, and behavioral problems.
They also evaluate students for placement in special ed. programs.
What are Educational Psychologists?
These individuals develop tests that measure the intellectual ability or academic potential of students.
What are Developmental Psychologists?
They study the client's physical, cognitive, social, and personality development throughout the client's lifetime.
What are Personality psychologists?
They seek to understand the nature of the personality.- The characteristics and behaviors that establish us as unique individuals.
What are Social psychologists?
They study how group or social influences affect the client's behavior and attitudes.
What are Environmental psychologists?
They study the relationships between the physical environment and behavior.
Such as outdoor temperature, air pollution, etc.
What are Industrial/Organizational psychologists?
They study people at work.
They are concerned with such issues as job satisfaction, personnel selection and training, leadership qualities, productivity, performance, and challenges from change in the workplace.
What are Health psychologists?
They study factors such as stress, lifestyle, and attitude affect physical health.
Develop disease prevention programs and interventions to improve the quality of life for terminally ill patients.
What are Consumer psychologists?
They analyze they way you shop for items. They examine the consumers' attitude toward certain products, and even decide what kind of music to play in the stores to put you in a buying mood.
What are neuropsychologists?
They study the relationships between the brain and the client's behavior.
Such as clinical neuropsychologists use tests to evaluate the cognitive effects of brain injuries and strokes.
What are Geropsychologists?
They focus on the psychological processes associated with aging.
They might work with geriatric patients to help them cope with the stresses of later life, including retirement, loss of loved ones, etc.
What are Forensic psychologists?
They work in the legal system.
Examples are: Evaluations for child custody cases, testify about the competence of the defendants, develop psychological profiles of criminals, etc.
What are sports psychologists?
They deal with helping athletes to develop relaxation techniques and mental focusing to overcome performance anxiety.
Who was Mary Whiton Calkins?
She was a student a Harvard who completed all of her coursework for her PhD, and was told that she could not get it because she was a woman.
In 1905, she became the first female president of the APA.
Who was Gilbert Haven Jones?
He was the first African American to receive a doctorate in psychology from a university in Germany.
He received it in 1909.
Who was Francis Sumner?
He was the first African American to receive a doctorate in psychology here in the United States.
He got it from Clarke University in 1920.
Who was J. Henry Alston?
He was the first African American to have his research findings published in a major U.S. psychology journal on the topic of the perception of warmth and cold.
Who was the first African American president of the APA?
Kenneth Clark was the first African American elected president of the APA in 1971.
Who was the first Asian American president of the APA?
In 1999, Richard Suinn became elected president of the APA.
What is the scientific method?
It is the framework for acquiring knowledge based on careful observation and the use of experimental methods.
What are the four different steps in the scientific method?
- 1. Develop a research question
- 2. Develop a hypothesis from the research question
- 3. Gather evidence to test the hypothesis
- 4. Draw conclusions about the hypothesis
What is the Case Study Method?
It is an in-depth study of one or more individuals.
The psychologist draws information from interviews, observation, or written records.
What is the Survey Method?
It gathers information from target groups of people through the use of structured interviews or questionnaires.
What is the Naturalistic Observation Method?
The Naturalistic Observation Method takes the laboratory "into the field" to directly observe the behavior of humans or animals in their natural habitats or environments.
What is the Correlational Method?
The correlational method examines relationships between variables, in essence, findings that show a link to something else.
What is a correlation coefficient?
It is a statistical measure of association between two variables.
Varies from -1 to 1. Coefficients with a positive variable represent a higher correlation with higher values on the other variable. (in essence, people with higher education, make more income.)
What is the Experimental Method?
Psychologists directly explore cause-and-effect relationships by manipulating certain variables.
What are independent variables?
These are the variables that psychologists change to effect the outcome of the test.
What are dependent variables?
These are the observed effects of certain outcomes of the testing.
What are operational definitions?
A definition of a variable based on the operations or procedures used to measure it.
What are control groups?
Groups of participants in a research experiment who do not receive experimental treatment or intervention.
What is random assignment?
Random assignment is a method of randomly assigning subjects to experimental or control groups.
What is a placebo?
An inert substance or experimental condition that resembles the active treatment.
What are placebo effects?
Positive outcomes of an experiment resulting from a participant's positive expectations about the treatment rather than from the treatment itself.
What is a single-blind study?
A study in which the participants do not know if they are getting treated, or given a placebo.
What is a double-blind study?
A study in which the participants and the experimenters do not know who actually gets the treatment and who gets the placebo.
What is an ethics review committee?
Committee that evaluates whether proposed studies meet ethical guidelines.
What is informed consent?
Agreement to participate in a research study after given the purpose and nature of the study and potential risks and benefits.
What are the nine steps of critical thinking?
- 1. Question everything
- 2. Clarify what you mean
- 3. Avoid oversimplifying
- 4. Avoid overgeneralizing
- 5. Don't confuse correlation with causation
- 6. Consider the assumptions on which the claim is based.
- 7. Examine sources of claims
- 8. Question the evidence on which claims are based.
- 9. Consider alternate ways of explaining claims
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