Exam 1 Chp 2 INFO

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Exam 1 Chp 2 INFO
2013-09-08 12:12:59
Exam Chp

INFO Exam 1
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  1. Business processes:
    • -Workflows of material, information, knowledge
    • -sets of activities, steps
    • -maybe tied to functional area or be cross-functional
    • businesses: can be seen as collection of business processes
    • business processes may be assets or liabilities
  2. Examples of functional business processes
    • manufacturing and production
    • -assembling the product
    • sales and marketing
    • -identifying customers
    • finance and accounting
    • -creating financial statements
    • human resources
    • -hiring employees
  3. Information technology enhances business processes in 2 main ways
    • 1. increasing efficiency of existing processes
    • -automating steps that were manual
    • 2. enabling entirely new processes that are capable of transforming the businesses
    • -change flow of information
    • -replace sequential steps with parallel steps
    • -eliminate delays in decision making
  4. Transaction processing systems
    • perform and record daily routine transactions necessary to conduct business
    • -examples: sales order entry, payroll, shipping
    • allow managers to monitor status of operations and relations with external environment
    • serve operational levels
    • serve predefined, structured goals and decision making
  5. management information systems
    • serve middle management
    • provide reports on firm's current performance, based on data form TPS
    • provide answers to routine questions with predefined procedure for answering them
    • typically have little analytic capability
  6. Decision support systems
    • serve middle management
    • support non-routine decision making. Example: what is impact on production schedule if December sales doubled?
    • often use external information as well from TPS and MIS
    • Model driven DSS
    • -voyage-estimating systems
    • Data driven DSS
    • -intrawest's marketing analysis systems
  7. Business intelligence
    • class of software applications
    • analyze current and historical data to find patterns and trends and aid decision-making
    • used in systems that support middle and senior management
    • -data-driven DSS
    • executive support systems (ESS)
  8. Executive support systems
    • Support senior management
    • address non-routine decisions
    • -requiring judgment, evaluation, and insight
    • incorporate data about external events (e.g. new tax laws or competitors) as well as summarized information from internal MIS and DSS
    • Example: digital dashboard with real-time view on firm's financial performance: working capital, accounts receivable, accounts payable, cash flow, and inventory
  9. Systems from a constituency perspective
    • transaction processing systems: supporting operational level employees
    • management information systems and decision-support systems: supporting managers
    • executive support systems: supporting executives
  10. Relationship of systems to one another
    • TPS: major source of data for other systems
    • ESS: recipient of data from lower-level systems
    • data may be exchanged between systems
    • in reality, most businesses' systems are only loosely integrated (but they are getting better)
  11. enterprise applications
    • systems for linking the enterprise
    • span functional areas
    • executive business processes across firm
    • include all levels of management
    • 4 major applications:
    • -enterprise systems (ERP)
    • -supply chain management systems
    • -customer relationship management systems
    • -knowledge management systems
  12. Enterprise systems
    • collects data from different firm functions and stores data in single central data repository
    • resolves problem of fragmented, redundant data sets and systems
    • enable: coordination of daily activities, efficient response to customer orders (production, inventory), provide valuable information for improving management decision making
  13. Supply chain management (SCM) systems
    • manage firm's relationships with suppliers
    • share information about
    • -orders, production, inventory levels, delivery of products and services
    • Goal:
    • -right amount of products to destination with least amount of time and lowest cost
  14. Customer relationship management systems:
    • provide information to coordinate all of the business processes that deal with customers in sales, marketing, and service to optimize revenue, customer satisfaction, and customer retention
    • integrate firm's customer-related processes and consolidate customer information from multiple communication channels
  15. knowledge management systems (KMS)
    • support processes for acquiring, creating, storing, distributing, and applying, integrating knowledge
    • -how to create, produce, distribute products and services
    • collect internal knowledge and experience within firm and make it available to employees
    • link to external sources of knowledge
  16. Alternative tools that increase integration and expedite the flow of information
    • intranets:
    • -internal company web sites accessible only by employees
    • extranets:
    • -company web sites accessible externally only to vendors and suppliers
    • often used to coordinate supply chain
  17. E-busines
    use of digital technology and internet to drive major business processes
  18. E-commerce
    • subset of e-business
    • buying and selling goods and services through internet
  19. E-government
    using internet technology to deliver information and services to citizens, employees, and businesses
  20. Systems for collaboration
    • Short-lived or long-term
    • informal or formal (teams)
    • Growing importance of collaboration:
    • -changing nature of work
    • -growth of professional work-"interaction jobs"
    • -changing organization of the firm
    • -changing scope of the firm 
    • -emphasis on innovation
    • -changing culture of work
  21. Business benefits of collaboration and teamwork
    • investments in collaboration technology can produce organizational improvements returning high ROI 
    • Benefits:
    • -productivity
    • -quality
    • -innovation
    • -customer service
    • -financial performance- profitability, sales, sales growth
  22. Building a collaborative culture and business processes
    • "Command and control" organizations- no value placed on teamwork or lower-level participation in decisions
    • Collaborative business culture
    • -senior managers rely on teams of employees
    • -policies, products, designs, processes, systems rely on teams
    • -managers purpose is to build teams
  23. technology for collaborative software tools. 15 categories of collaborative software tools
    • email and instant messaging
    • white boarding
    • collabortive writing
    • web presenting
    • collaborative reviewing
    • work scheduling
    • document sharing/wikis
    • file sharing
    • mind mapping
    • screen sharing
    • large audience webinars
    • audio conferencing 
    • co-browsing 
    • video conferencing
  24. Technology for collaboration and teamwork
    • social networking
    • wikis
    • virtual worlds
    • internet-based collaboration environments
    • -virtual meeting systems (telepresence)
    • -google apps/ google sites
    • -microsoft sharepoint
    • -lotus notes
  25. 2 dimensions of collaboration technologies
    • space (or location)- remoste or colocated
    • time- synchronous or asynchronous
  26. 6 steps in evaluating software tools
    • 1. what are your firm's collaboration challenges?
    • 2. what kinds of solutions are available?
    • 3. analyze available products' cost and benefits
    • 4. evaluate security risks
    • 5. consult users for implementation and training issues
    • 6. evaluate product vendors
  27. Information systems department
    • formal organizational unit responsible for information technology services
    • often headed by chief information officer (CIO)- other senior positions include chief security officer (CSO), chief knowledge officer (CKO), chief privacy officer (CPO)
    • programmers
    • systems analysts
    • information systems managers
  28. End users
    • representatives of other departments for whom applications are developed
    • increasing role in system design, development
  29. IT governance
    • strategies and policies for using IT in the organization 
    • decision rights
    • accountability
    • organization systems function
    • -centralized, decentralized, etc