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What are the five freedoms
- Freedom from malnutrition
- Freedom from thermal and physical discomfort
- Freedom from injury and disease
- Freedom from fear and stress
- Freedom to express most normal patterns of behaviour
Although there is no perfect definition of animal welfare what are some better points that have been made about it in some well known definitions (2)
It is a continuum not black and white
Not only behavioural considerations but physical, environmental, nutritional, behavioural, health and social needs
Explain a natural living, biological functioning, and feelings based approach to animal welfare
- Natural living is that welfare of an animal will be good if they are kept in a reasonably natural environment and can reasonably use their natural adaptations
- Biological functioning is animal should be biologically thriving and growing as well as normal reproduction and should be reasonably free from disease injury malnutrition and abnormalities of behaviour as well as physiology
- Feelings approach is that welfare is base don how the animal feels and so should be able to enjoy the pleasures of life such as comfort contentment and should be free of pain fear hunger and other UNPLEASANT STATES
Does good high levels of production equal good welfare?
To an extent it can be a good guess but it does not always the case, because the best welfarwe does not mean the best production, there is an economic point where they meet unfortunately and where that is will determine welfare of the animals
Which of the five freedoms do you think is most important to the vet proffesion?
Freedom from pain injury and disease
An unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage
Describe some invasive procedures for the following animal species
- Castration, dehorning, branding
- Antler harvesting
- Beak trimming, comb and wattle removal
- Castration, tail docking
- Ear notching, teeth clipping
What are the two main constraints against using pain mitigation during invasive procedures in farm practice
Economics and ergonomics
There are many ways to castrate animals, what is the most humane way?
The technique does not matter near as much as the age of castration does, techniques vary a little bit but the younger the extrodinarily better these animals will do
While keeping a bull a bull for a bit longer may help with additional weight gain why is it likely not the greatest idea economically
Cause you get less money when you take it too market as a bull
Is a bovine horn solid the way through?
No it is hollowed out inside and thus hurts when you cut it off
When in the stage of horn development is it best to dehorn?
Before the bud takes root and forms an actual small horn, if it is done before it roots than you should not need a vet
What seems to be a better tool for castration a knife or a band?
While the band may be more long term the knife hurts incredibly for animals especially with no epidural therefore it is generally considered the band is the best
Roughly how long does a band take to take testes off? WHy does it cause some problems with growth and energy?
- Roughly 5 weeks is the average probably
- Cause it leaves a wound within the testes that takes energy to heal and keep clean and sanitary
Do cattle that are castrated at the feedlot ever gain the weight back they misse dwhen castrated at such an old age?
No they do not exhibit compensatory growth unless castrated at a young age
According tot he code right now for beef animals castrated after ____ months of age need to have pain meds
The basic recommendations that have been come to via the castration of cattle is that
Castrate before calves reach feedlot
Atleast 2 months before calves are sold
Castrating mature bulls without analgesis is unethical
What is the one livestock production system in Canada that does not have a code of practice
Under the new dairy code can you dock tails? Dehorn? Castrate?
- Nope not unless medically necessary
- Yes but you need both pain and bleeding control
- Yes but pain control must be given
Does the environment an animal lives in effect its overall outlook on life?
Yes according to the experiment done with diferent coloured buckets and food rewards animals in less satisfying environments were more pessisimistic to grey buckets
Applied ethologists work with what kind of animals?
Animals under our care
Is behaviour only determined by external stimulus?
- No it is a combination of external stimulus and internal motivation.
- An external stimulus does not bring about the same response every time it occurs
Differentiate between proximate and ultimate explanations for behaviour
- Proximate = physical state, age, hormones, brain function etc etc
- Ultimate = evolutionary signifigance ex) gave him the ability to breed the best females more efficiently
Are all behaviours functional?
To an extent, all categgories of behaviours are functional, while crowboarding or certai n play behaviours may not serve as a function overall play behaviour did without a doubt make animals more succesful
Do we always see the exact purpose a behaviour was developed for today in our animals
No elephants got good memories to rememvber where water is, now they can remember their keepers for 20 years, once it is there it is there
Can we artificially select for a different species?
No all of our domestic species can become feral and near wild in one generation proof that they have not changed much
Why dio we seen so few wild cattle
Can be cashed in
Do stereotypies have a function?
No that is in its definition, that is why cud chewing in cattle is not considered a stereotypie
What if a crazy behaviour like a dog jumping up on you when you get home happens every single time? Is this a steroetypie
No because it happens to a stimulus and is not happening when your gone and all day in the absence of that stimulus
Can stereotypies be learned from other animals?
So veal calves that tongue roll and star gaze tend to have less stomach ulcers cause saliva going down as a buffer does this mean it is not a stereotypie, it serves a function?
No it still is because that is not why the calf is doing it, it is simply a convenient side effect
Do we see any stereotypies in the wild?
Do stereotypies have a genetic component?
Absolutely, especially in dog breeds