Chemistry 111 - Study Guide Ch. 11

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Chemistry 111 - Study Guide Ch. 11
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2013-09-20 10:14:32
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Chapter 11 for study guide
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  1. Define intermolecular forces.
    Attractive forces that exist between all molecules and atoms.
  2. Contrast the main properties of solids, liquids and gases.
    • State     Shape     Volume     Density    
    • Solid       Fixed       Fixed       High
    • Liquid   Indefinite    Fixed       High
    • Gas     Indefinite   Indefinite   Low

    • Compressible     Will it flow?
    • NO                      NO
    • NO                     Yes
    • Yes                    Yes

    Strength of Intermolecular Attractions
  3. Differentiate between crystalline solids and amorphous solids.
    • a) Crystalline solids
    • i) Particles are arranged in an orderly geometric pattern.

    • b) Amorphous solids
    • i) Particles do not show a regular geometric pattern over a long range.
  4. Describe the factors that cause changes between phases.
    a) Solids melt when heated because the particles gain enough kinetic energy to partially overcome the attractive forces.

    • b) Liquid boil when heated because the particles gain enough kinetic energy to completely overcome the attractive forces.
    • i) The stronger the attractive forces, the higher you will need to raise the temperature.

    • c) Gases can be condensed  by decreasing the temperature and/or increasing the pressure.
    • i) Pressure can be increased by decreasing the gas volume. 
    • ii) Reducing the volume reduces the amount of translational freedom the particles have.
  5. Explain the relationship between the phase of a substance, its temperature and the strength of its intermolecular forces.
    The strength of the intermolecular forces between the molecules or atoms that compose a substance determines its state - solid, liquid, or gas - at a given temperature.
  6. Define dispersion force (London force) and the factors affecting the magnitude of dispersion forces. Consider the magnitude of the dispersion force for closely related elements or compounds to predict their boiling points.
  7. Define dipole-dipole force. Predict the presence of dipole-dipole forces in a compound. Explain the correlation between dipole moment and boiling point.
  8. Describe how the miscibility of two liquids is related to their polarity. Predict the solubility of two liquids.
  9. Define hydrogen bonding. Predict the presence of hydrogen bonding in a compound. Explain the effect of hydrogen bonding on the boiling point of a group of analogous compounds.
  10. Define ion-dipole force.
  11. Compare and contrast the different types of Intermolecular Forces (Table 11.4, p466).
  12. Describe the significance of intermolecular forces of attraction in surface tension, viscosity and capillary action.
  13. Define vaporization and condensation.  Describe the conditions in which the rate of vaporization increases.
  14. Define heat of vaporization and perform calculations using the heat of vaporization.
  15. Describe the process of dynamic equilibrium. State Le Chatlier’s Principle.
  16. Define boiling point and normal boiling point.
  17. Define critical temperature, critical pressure and supercritical fluid.
  18. Describe sublimation, deposition, melting, fusion and the energetic of melting and freezing.
  19. Explain all segments of the heating curve for water. Calculate the amount of energy required for a given amount of a substance to go from a given temperature to another, using the heating curve.
  20. Describe the major features of a phase diagram including: the regions, lines, the triple point and the critical point. Be able to navigate within a phase diagram.
  21. Discuss the properties that make water an extraordinary substance.
  22. Know the technique used to determine the structure of crystalline solids is X-Ray Diffraction (no calculations)
  23. Define crystalline lattice. Describe how the lattice is represented with the unit cell.
  24. Draw each of the following cubic cells: simple cubic, body centered cubic and face centered cubic. Relate the atoms per unit cell, the coordination number and the packing efficiency.
  25. Describe the general characteristics of molecular solids, ionic solids and atomic solids.
  26. Explain why a gecko is able to walk on a polished glass surface.
  27. Why are intermolecular forces important?
  28. What are the main properties of liquid (in contrast to gases and solids)?
  29. What are the main properties of liquid (in contrast to liquids and gases)?
  30. What is the fundamental difference between an amorphous solid and a crystalline solid?
  31. What factors cause changes between the solid and liquid state? The liquid and gas state?
  32. Describe the relationship between the state of a substance, its temperature, and the strength of its intermolecular forces.
  33. From what kinds of interactions do intermolecular forces originate?
  34. Why are intermolecular forces generally much weaker than bonding force?
  35. What is dispersion force? What does the magnitude of the dispersion force depend on? How can you predict the magnitude of the dispersion force for closely related elements or compounds?
  36. What is the dipole-dipole force? How can you predict the presence of dipole-dipole forces in a compound?
  37. How is the miscibility of two liquids related to their polarity?
  38. What is hydrogen bonding? How can you predict the presence of hydrogen bonding in a compound?
  39. What is the ion-dipole force? Why is it important?
  40. What is surface tension? How does surface tension result from intermolecular forces? How is it related to the strength of intermolecular forces?
  41. What is viscosity? How does viscosity depend on intermolecular forces? What other factors affect viscosity?
  42. What is capillary action? How does it depend on the relative strengths of adhesive and cohesive forces?
  43. Explain what happens in the processes of vaporization and condensation. Why does the rate of vaporization increase with increasing temperature and surface area?
  44. Why is vaporization endothermic? Why is condensation exothermic?
  45. How is the volatility of a substance related to the intermolecular forces present within the substance?
  46. What is the heat of vaporization for a liquid and why is it useful?
  47. Explain the process of dynamic equilibrium. How is dynamic equilibrium related to vapor pressure?
  48. What happens to a system in dynamic equilibrium when it is disturbed in some way?
  49. Define the terms boiling point and normal boiling point.
  50. Explain what happens to a substance when it is heated in a closed container to its critical temperature.
  51. What is sublimation? Give a common example of sublimation.
  52. What is fusion? Is fusion exothermic or endothermic? Why?
  53. What is the heat of fusion and why is it important?
  54. Examine the heating curve for water in Section 11.7 (Figure 11.36). Explain why the curve has two segments in which heat is added to the water but the temperature does not rise.
  55. Examine the heating curve for water in Section 11.7 (Figure 11.36). Explain the significance of the slopes of each of the three rising segments. Why are the slopes different?
  56. What is a phase diagram? Draw a generic phase diagram and label its important features.
  57. What is the significance of crossing a line in a phase diagram?
  58. How do the properties of water differ from those of the most other substances?
  59. What is a crystalline lattice? How is the lattice represented with the unit cell?
  60. Make a drawing of each unit cell: simple cubic, body-centered cubic, and face-centered cubic.
  61. For each of the cubic cells, give the coordination number and number of atoms per unit cell.
  62. Determine the kinds of intermolecular forces that are present in each element or compound:
    a. N2      b. NH3        c. CO      d. CCL4
    a. dispersion        b. dispersion, dipole-dipole, hydrogen bonding      c. dispersion, dipole-dipole     d. dispersion
  63. Determine the kinds of intermolecular forces that are present in each element or compound:
    a. HCL   b. H2O   c. Br2    d. He
    a. dispersion, dipole-dipole    b. Dispersion, dipole-dipole, hydrogen bonding    c. dispersion   d. dispersion
  64. Arrange these compounds in order of increasing boiling point. Explain your reasoning.      
    a. CH4      b. CH3CH3    c. CH3CH2CL              d. CH3CH2OH
    a, b, c, d, Boiling point increases with increasing intermolecular forces. The molecules increase in their intermolecular forces as follows: a, dispersion forces; b, stronger dispersion forces (broader electron cloud); c, dispersion forces and dipole-dipole interaction; d, dispersion forces, dipole-dipole interactions, and hydrogen bonding.
  65. For each pair of compounds, pick the one with the highest boiling point. Explain your reasoning.   
    a. CH3OH or CH3SH   b. CH3OCH3 or CH3CH2OH   c. CH4 or CH3CH3
    a. CH3OH, hydrogen bonding     b. CH3CH2OH, hydrogen bonding   c. CH3CH3, greater mass, broader electron cloud cause greater dispersion forces.
  66. For each pair of compounds, pick the one with the higher vapor pressure at a given temperature. Explain your reasoning.
    a. Br2 or I2           b. H2S or H20      c. NH3 or PH3
    a. Br2, smaller mass results in weaker dispersion forces        b. H2S, lacks hydrogen bonding       c. PH3, lacks hydrogen bonding

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