Exam 1 INFO vocabulary

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hydeab
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233566
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Exam 1 INFO vocabulary
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2013-09-08 15:54:38
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INFO Exam
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INFO Chp 1,2,3 vocabulary
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  1. Business functions
    specialized tasks performed in a business organization, including manufacturing and production, sales and marketing, finance and accounting, and human resources
  2. Business model
    an abstraction of what an enterprise is and how the enterprise delivers a product or service, showing how the enterprise creates wealth
  3. Business processes
    the unique ways in which organization coordinate and organize work activities, information, and knowledge to produce a product or service
  4. Complementary assets
    additional assets required to derive value from a primary investment
  5. Computer hardware
    physical equipment used for input, processing, and output activities in an information system
  6. Computer literacy
    knowledge about information technology focusing on understanding of how computer-based technologies work
  7. Computer software
    detailed, preprogrammed instructions that control and coordinate the work of computer hardware components in an information system
  8. Culture
    the set of fundamental assumptions about what products the organization should produce, how and where it should produce them, and for whom they should be produced
  9. Data
    streams of raw facts representing events occurring in organizations or the physical environment before they have been organized and arranged into a form that people can understand and use
  10. Data management technology
    consists of the software governing the organization of data on physical storage media
  11. Data workers
    people such as secretaries or bookkeepers who process the organization's paperwork
  12. Digital firm
    organization where nearly all significant business processes and relationships with customers, suppliers, and employees are digitally enabled, and key corporate assets are managed through digital means
  13. Extranets
    private intranet that is accessible to authorized outsiders
  14. Feedback
    output that is returned to the appropriate members of the organization to help them evaluate or correct input
  15. Information
    data that have been shaped into a form that is meaningful and useful to human beings
  16. Information system
    interrelated components working together to collect, process, store, and disseminate information to support decision making, coordination, control, analysis, and visualization in an organization
  17. Informations systems literacy
    broad-based understanding of information systems that includes behavioral knowledge about organizations and individuals using information systems as technical knowledge about computers
  18. Information technology (IT)
    all the hardware and software technologies a firm needs to achieve its business objectives
  19. Information technology (IT) infrastructure
    computer hardwar, software, data, storage technology, and networks providing a portfolio of shared IT resources for the organizaiton
  20. Input
    the capture or collection of raw data from within the organization or from its external environment for processing in an information system
  21. Internet
    global network of networks using universal standards to connect millions of different networks
  22. Intranets
    an internal network based on internet and world wide web technology and standards
  23. Knowledge workers
    people such as engineers or architects who design products or services and create knowledge for the organization
  24. Management information systems
    the study of information systems focusing on their use in business management
  25. middle management
    people in the middle of the organizational hierarchy who are responsible for carrying out the plans and goals of senior management
  26. network
    the linking of 2 or more computers to share data or resources, such as a printer
  27. networking and telecommunications technology
    physical devices and software that link various computer hardware components and transfer data from one physical location to another
  28. operational management
    people who monitor the day-to-day activities of the organization
  29. organizational and management capital
    investments in organization and management such as new business processes management behavior, organizational culture, or training
  30. output
    the distribution of processed information to the people who will use it or to the activities for which it will be used
  31. processing
    the conversion, manipulation, and analysis of raw input into a form that is more meaningful to humans
  32. production or service workers
    people who actually produce the products or services of the organization
  33. senior management
    people occupying the topmost hierarchy in an organization who are responsible for making long-range decisions
  34. sociotechnical view
    seeing systems as composed of both technical and social elements
  35. business intelligence
    applications and technologies to help users make better business decisions
  36. Chief information officer (CIO)
    senior manager in charge of the information systems function in the firm
  37. Chief knowledge officer (CKO)
    senior executive in charge of the organization's knowledge management program
  38. Chief privacy officer (CPO)
    responsible for ensuring the company complies with existing data privacy
  39. Chief security officer (CSO)
    heads a formal security function for the organization and is responsible for enforcing the firm's security policy
  40. Collaboration
    working with others to achieve shared and explicit goals
  41. Customer relationship management (CRM) system
    business and technology discipline that uses information systems to coordinate all of the business processes surrounding the firm's interactions with its customers in sales, marketing,and service
  42. Decision-support systems (DSS)
    information systems at the organization's management level that combine data and sophisticated analytical models or data analysis tools to support semistructured and unstructured decision making
  43. Digital dashboard
    displays all of a firm's key performance indicators as graphs and charts on a single screen to provide one-page overview of all the critical measurements necessary to make key executive decisions
  44. Electronic business (e-business)
    the use of the internet and the digital technology to execute all the business processes in the enterprise. Includes e-commerce as well as processes for the internal management of the firm and for coordination with suppliers and other business partners
  45. Electronic commerce (e-commerce)
    the process of buying and selling goods and services electronically involving transactions using the internet, networks, and other digital technologies
  46. End users
    representatives of departments outside the information systems group for whom applications are developed
  47. Enterprise applications
    systems that can coordinate activities, decisions, and knowledge across many different functions, levels, and business units in a firm. Include enterprise systems, supply chain management systems, and knowledge management systems
  48. Enterprise systems
    integrated enterprise-wide information systems that coordinate key internal processes of the firm
  49. Executive support systems (ESS)
    information systems at the organization's strategic level designed to address unstructured decision making through advanced graphics and communications
  50. Information systems department
    the formal organizational unit that is responsible for the information systems function in the organizaiton
  51. Information systems managers
    leaders of the various specialists in the information systems department
  52. Interorganizational systems
    information systems that automate the flow of information across organizational boundaries and link a company to its customers, distributors, or suppliers
  53. IT governance
    strategy and policies for using information technology within an organization, specifying the decision rights and accountabilities to ensure that information technology supports the organization's strategies and objectives
  54. Knowledge management systems (KMS)
    systems that support the creation, capture, storage, and dissemination of firm expertise and knowledge
  55. Management information systems (MIS)
    the study of information systems focusing on their use in business and management
  56. Portal
    web interface for presenting integrated personalized content from a variety of sources. also refers to a web site service that provides an initial point of entry to the web
  57. Programmers
    the process of translating the system specifications prepared during the design stage into program code
  58. Supply chain management (SCM) systems
    information systems that automate the flow of information between a firm and its suppliers in order to optimize the planning, sourcing, manufacturing, and delivery of products and services
  59. systems analysts
    specialists who translate business problems and requirements into information requirements and systems, acting as liaison between the information systems department and the rest of the organizations
  60. teams
    teams are formal groups whose members collaborate to achieve specific goals
  61. telepresence
    is a technology that allows a person to give the appearance of being present at a location other than his or her true physical location
  62. Transaction processing systems (TPS)
    computerized systems that perform and record the daily routine transactions necessary to conduct the business; they serve the organization's operational level
  63. agency theory
    economic theory that views the firm as a nexus of contracts among self-interested individuals who must be supervised and managed
  64. benchmarking
    setting strict standards for products, services, or activities and measuring organizational performance against those standards
  65. best practices
    the most successful solutions or problem-solving methods that have been developed by a specific organization or industry
  66. business ecosystem
    loosely coupled but interdependent networks of suppliers, distributors, outsourcing firms, transportation service firms, and technology manufacturers.
  67. competitive forces model
    model used to describe the interaction of external influences, specifically threats and opportunities, that affect an organization's strategy and ability to compete.
  68. core competency
    activity at which a firm excels as a world-class leader
  69. disruptive technologies
    technologies with disruptive impact on industries and businesses, rendering existing products, services and business models obsolete
  70. efficient customer response system
    system that directly links consumer behavior back to distribution, production, and supply chain
  71. mass customization
    the capacity to offer individually tailored products or services using mass production resources
  72. network economics
    model of strategic systems at the industry level based on the concept of a network where adding another participant entails zero marginal costs but can create much larger marginal gains
  73. organization
    • behavioral- a collection of rights, privileges, obligations, and responsibilities that are delicately balanced over a period of time through conflict and conflict resolution
    • technical- a stable, formal, social structure that takes resources from the environment and processes them to produce outputs.
  74. primary activities
    activities most directly related to the production and distribution of a firm's products or services
  75. product differentiation
    competitive strategy for creating brand loyalty by developing new and unique products and services that are not easily duplicated by competitors
  76. routines
    precise rules, procedures and practices that have been developed to cope with expected situations
  77. strategic transitions
    a movement from one level of sociotechnical system to another. Often required when adopting strategic systems that demand changes in the social and technical elements of an organization
  78. support activities
    activities that make the delivery if a firm's primary activities possible. consist of the organization's infrastructure, human resources, technology, and procurement
  79. switching costs
    the expense a customer or company incurs in lost time and expenditure of resources when changing from one supplier or system to a competing supplier or system
  80. transaction cost theory
    economic theory stating that firms grow larger because they can conduct marketplace transactions internally more cheaply than they can with external firms in the marketplace
  81. value chain model
    model that highlights the primary or support activities that add a margin of value to a firm's products or services where information systems can best be applied to achieve a competitive advantage
  82. value web
    customer-driven network of independent firms who use information technology to coordinate their value chains to collectively produce a product or service for a market
  83. virtual company
    organization using networks to link people, assets and ideas to create and distribute products and services without being limited to traditional organizational boundaries or physical location

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