Bio 1010C - Chapter 2 Key terms

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Charlie581
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Bio 1010C - Chapter 2 Key terms
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2013-09-08 17:21:21
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Bio 1010C Chapter Key terms
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Bio 1010C - Chapter 2 Key terms
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  1. Acid
    A molecule that releases Hydrogen ions (H) in solution
  2. Anions
    An ion that has a net negative charge
  3. Atomic Mass Unit (AMU)
    An atoms mass relative to the the mass of the other atoms.
  4. Atomic Number
    Number of protons in the atom
  5. Atomic Weight
  6. Atoms
    The smallest functional unit of matter that forms all chemical substances and cannot be further broken down into other substances by ordinary chemical or physical means.
  7. Bases
    A molecule that when dissolved in water lower the H concentration
  8. Buffer
    A compound that acts to minimize pH fluctuations in the fluids of living organisms. Buffer systems can raise of lower pH systems.
  9. Cations
    An ion that has a net positive charge
  10. Chemical Bond
  11. Chemical Reaction
    The formation and breaking of chemical bonds, resulting in a change of the composition of the substance.
  12. Cohesion
    The ability of like molecules to noncovalently bind to each other; the attraction of molecules to each other.
  13. Compound
    A molecule composed of two or more different elements
  14. Covalent Bond
    A chemical bond in which two atoms share a pair of electrons
  15. Electron Shells
    The region around an atoms nucleus where electrons reside; larger atoms have more electron shells than smaller atoms
  16. Electronegativity
    A measure of an atoms ability to attract electrons to its outer shell from another atoms
  17. Electrons
    A negatively charged particle found in orbitals around an atomic nucleus
  18. Element
    A substance composed of specific types of atoms that cannot be further broken down by ordinary chemical or physical means
  19. Energy
    The ability to promote change or do work
  20. Heat of Vaporization
    The heat required to vaporize 1 mole of any substance at its boiling point under standard pressure
  21. Hydrogen Bond
    A weak chemical attraction between a partially positive hydrogen atom of a polar molecule and a partially negative atom of another polar molecule.
  22. Hydrophilic
    Refers to ions and molecules that contain polar covalent bonds and will dissolve in water.
  23. Hydrophobic
    Refers to molecules that do not have partial charges and therefore are not attracted to water molecules. Such molecules are composed predominately of carbon and hydrogen and are relatively insoluble in water.
  24. Ionic Bonds
    The bond that occurs when a cation bonds to an anion.
  25. Ions
    An atom or molecule that gains or loses one or more electrons and acquires a net electric charge.
  26. Isotopes
    An element that exists in multiple forms that differ in the number of neutrons they contain.
  27. Mass Number
  28. Mole
    The amount of any substance that contains the same number of particles as there are atoms in exactly 12g of carbon.
  29. Molecular Weight
  30. Neutrons
    A neutral particle found in the center of an atom
  31. Nucleus
    • 1. In cell biology, an organelle found in eukaryotic cells that contains most of the calls genetic material.¬†
    • 2. In chemistry, the region of an atom that contains protons and neutrons.
  32. Orbital
    The region surrounding the nucleus of an atom where the probability is high of finding a particular electron.
  33. pH
    The mathematical expression of a solutions hydrogen ion (H) concentration, defined as the negative logarithm to the base 10 of the H concentration
  34. Polar
  35. Products
    The end result of a chemical reaciton
  36. Protons
    A positively charged particle found in the nucleus of an atom. The number of protons in an atom is called the atomic number and defines each type of element.
  37. Radioisotopes
    An isotope found in nature that is inherently unstable and usually does not exist for long periods of time. Such isotopes decay and emit energy in the form of radiation.
  38. Reactants
    A substance that participates in a chemical reaction and becomes changed by that reaction.
  39. Reversible Reaction
  40. Solute
    A substance dissolved in a liquid
  41. Solution
    A liquid that contains one or more dissolved solutes.
  42. Solvent
    The liquid in which a solute is dissolved.
  43. Specific Heat
    The amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1 C.
  44. van der Waals

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