Paramedic A&P Ch.2

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Linares0977
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Paramedic A&P Ch.2
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2013-09-08 22:07:38
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"CELLS
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  1. CELLS
    The bulding blocks of all life.
  2. PROTOPLASM (or CYTOPLASM)
    Is a minute mass of colorless substance.
  3. PROTOPLASM
    Is a viscous liquid matrix that supports all internal cellular structures (organelles) provide a convenient medium for intracellular transport of various substances such as nutrients, signaling molecules, ATP, and proteins.
  4. CELL MEMBRANE
    Surrounds the protoplasm, which consists of fatty substances that seperate the cell from its neighbor.
  5. EXTRACELLULAR
    Substances outside the cell membrane.
  6. INTRACELLULAR
    Substances inside the cell membrane.
  7. PROTONS
    Atoms that make up molecules that are comprised of smaller particles.
  8. That have a positve electricle charge
    PROTONS
  9. That have a negative electrical charge
    ELECTRONS
  10. That are uncharged
    NEUTRONS
  11. The fatty components of the cell membrane are arranged in a double layer, is called
    LIPID BILAYER
  12. A state of decreased oxygenation is called
    HYPOXIA
  13. HOMEOSTASIS
    The maintenance of a stable temperature, fluid balance, and pH balance.
  14. DIFFUSION
    Is the movement of solutes, particles such as salts that are dissolved in solvent, from and area of high consentration to one of low concentration, to produce an even distribution of particles in the space available.
  15. The most common solvent or substance, in which other substances or solutes will dissolve in is
    WATER
  16. OSMOSIS
    Is the movement of a solvent, such as water, from  an area of Low Solute Concentration to one of High Solute Concentration throught a selectively permeable membrane.
  17. OSMOTIC PRESSURE
    Is a measure of the tendency of water to move by osmsis across a membrane.
  18. If too much water moves out of a cell, the cell shrinks abnormally, a process known as
    CRENATION
  19. If too much water enters a cell, it will swell and burst, a process known as
    LYSIS
  20. FACILITATED DIFFUSION
    Is the process in which a carrier molecule moves substances in or out of cells from areas of High Concentration to areas of Lower Concentration.
  21. ACTIVE TRANSPORT
    Is the movement of a substance against a concentration or gradient such as the cell membrane.
  22. FILTRATION
    Is a process of the movement of water out of plasma across the capillary membrane into the interstitial space.
  23. An opposing pressure called______pulls water back into the capillary from the interstital space in an effort to create balance.
    Oncotic Force
  24. ENDOCYTOSIS
    Is the uptake of material through the cell membrane.
  25. EXOCYTOSIS
    Is the release of secretions from the cell.
  26. When Endocytosis involves solid particles, the processis called______, which means "Cell Eating".
    Phagocytosis
  27. Endocytosis of liquids, or "Cell Drinking", is called_______.
    Pinocytosis
  28. If a cell is placed in a solution and the cell neither shrinks nor swells, the solution has an equal osmotic pressure to the cells and body fluid and is said to be______.
    Isotonic
  29. If the cell shrinks when placed in a solution, the solution is considered to be________.
    Hypertonic
  30. If the cell swells when placed in a solution, the solution is considered to be______.
    Hypotonic
  31. ORGANELLES
    Are mechanisms within the cells that carry out the functions needed for the human body to function.
  32. Human cells contain___pairs of chromosomes.
    23
  33. The nucleus is the nerve center of the cell and contains the genetic material,________________, which is located within the structure known as___________.
    Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA), Chromosomes
  34. Nucleoli
    Are rounded, dense structures situated within the protoplasm.
  35. Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
    Are nucleic acids that contain ribose and uracil as structual components and are associated with controlling cellular activities.
  36. Diaphoresis
    Sweating
  37. Tachycardia
    Rapid Pluse/Rapid Heart Rate
  38. Tachypnea
    Rapid Respiratory Rate/Rapid Breathing
  39. Hypoglycemia
    Is a low blood sugar level that results in symptoms as rapid respiration; pale,moist skin; and dizzines, among others.
  40. Ribosomes
    Are organelles that contain RNA and protein.
  41. The_______is a set of membranes within the protoplasm that is associated with the formation of various carbohydrate (sugar) and complex protein molecules.
    Golgi Complex
  42. Lysosomes
    Are membrane-bound vesicles that contain a variety of enzymes.
  43. Intracelluar Fluid (ICF)
    Fluid within the cell.
  44. Fluid outside of cells known as the_______________.
    Extracellular Fluid (ECF)
  45. Abnormally decreased potassium levels in the blood, also affects the heart and may cause life-threatening cardiac rhythm problems.
    Hypokalemia
  46. Mitochondria
    Are small, rod-like organelles that function as the metabolic center of the cell.
  47. Dysrhythmias
    life-threatening rhythm disturbance of the heart.
  48. This ongoing process of cell renewal is called_____and is a normal process of life.
    Remodeling
  49. Mitosis
    Is the division of one cell into two genetically indentical and equal "daughter" cells.
  50. The four stages of Mitosis are the:
    Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telophase
  51. Meiosis
    Is a specialized form of cell division that only in the production of mature sperm and ova.
  52. The Four Stages of Mitosis....
    First Stage: The chromosomes condense and the nuclear membrane disintegrates.

    Second Stage: The spindle fibers attach to centromeres and chromosomes align along the metaphase plate.

    Third Stage: Sister chromatids, each now called a chromosome, seperate and move to  oppiste poles.

    Fourth Stage: Chromosomes arrive at each pole, and new nuclear membranes form.
  53. Tissues
    Are groups of cells working together.
  54. There are four types of tissues:
    Epithelial, Connective, Muscle, and Nerve
  55. Cell shapes include flat sheets
    Squamous
  56. Rows of square-shaped cells
    Cuboidal
  57. Rows of tall thin cells
    Columnar
  58. Simple Epithelium
    Consists of a single layer of cells, all of which are in contact with the basement membrane.
  59. Stratified Epithelium
    Consists of more than one layer of cells, only one which is in contact with the basement membrane.
  60. Pseudostratified Epithelium
    Contains a single layer of cells of varying heights.
  61. Transitional Epithelium
    Consistsoflayers of stratified cells that change shape from cuboidal to squamous when the organ is stretched.
  62. AdiposeTissue
    is a special type of connective tissue that contains large amounts of lipids (fat).
  63. Striated
    Muscle tissue that has microscopic bands and may be voluntary or involuntary.
  64. Nonstriated
    Smooth
  65. Voluntary Muscle
    Consciously Controlled
  66. Involuntary Muscle
    Not normally under consious control
  67. Skeletal Muscle
    Straited Voluntary
  68. Cardiac Muscle
    Striated Involuntary
  69. Smooth Muscle
    Nonstriated Involuntary
  70. Dendrites
    Receive electrical impulses from the axons of other nerve cells and conduct them toward the cell body.
  71. Axons
    Typically conduct electrical impulses away from the cell body.
  72. The connective and supporting tissues of nerve tissue are collectively referred to as
    Neuroglia
  73. Skeletal System
    Is composedof 206 bones and forms the foundation and frame of the body.
  74. Joints
    Are the point where two or more bones come together, allowing movement to occur.
  75. Movement at joints is aided by______, which is shiny connective tissue that is bathed and lubricated by______, which provides a slippery surface over which the bones may move freely.
    Cartilage, Synovial Fluid
  76. Ligaments
    Are tough white bands of tissue that bind joints together connecting bone to bone and cartilage.
  77. Muscle connect to bones by
    Tendons

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