biology 201

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mootoosammy1
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233630
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biology 201
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2013-09-08 22:20:51
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Anatomical Position • Standard anatomical body position – Body erect – Feet slightly apart – Palms facing forward • Thumbs point away from body • Always use directional terms as if body is in anatomical position • Right and left refer to body being viewed, not those of observer
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  1. Anatomy
    study of structure of body parts and their relationships to one another
  2. Subdivision of anatomy
    gross or macroscopic - seen with the naked eye. microscopic - things viewed with a microscope. developmental - embryology
  3. To study anatomy
    mastery of anatomical terminology-observation- manipulation - palpation - auscultation
  4. s Physiology
    • - study of the function  of the body
    • - subdivision based on organ systems
    •     ( e.g. renal or cardiovascular physiology)
    • - often focuses on cellular and molecular level
    •    - Body's abilities depend on chemical reactions in in individual cell
  5. To study physiology
    • - Ability to focus at many level (from systemic to cellular and molecular
    • - Study of basic physical principles (e.g. electrical currents, pressure,and movement)
    • - Study of basic chemical principles
  6. anatomy and physiology
    • - Function always reflects structure
    • - What a structure can do depends on its            specific form
  7. Level of structural organization
    • chemical- atoms and molecules and organelles
    • cellular - cell
    • tissue - groups of similar cells
    • organ- contains two or more types of tissues
    • organ system - organs that work closely together
    • organismal - all organ systems
  8. Necessary life functions
    • - maintaining boundaries - cover of cells
    • - movement - stomach, cardiac
    • - responsiveness - nervous system, picking     up stimuli
    • - digestion - food
    • - metabolism - all chemical reactions that       occurs in body cells
    • - dispose of waste - kidney filter, blood            waste
    • - reproduction - keeping species alive
    • - growth
  9. necessary life function maintain boundaries
    • maintaining boundaries between internal and external environments. 
    • - plasma membranes
    • - skin
  10. necessary lie function movement
    • movement ( contractility)
    • - of body parts (skeletal muscle)
    • -of substances ( cardiac and smooth muscle)
  11. necessary life function responsiveness
    • responsiveness
    • - ability to sense and respond to stimuli
    • - withdrawal reflex
    • - control of breathing rate
  12. necessary life function digestion
    • digestion
    • -breakdown and ingested foodstuffs
    • - absorption of simple molecules into blood
  13. necessary life function metaboloism
    • metabolism
    • - all chemical reactions that occur in body         cells 
    • - catabolism and anabolism
  14. necessary life function excretion
    • excretion
    • - removal of waste from metabolism and           digestion
    • - urea, carbon dioxide , feces
  15. necessary life function reproduction
    • reproduction
    • - cellular division for growth or repair
    • - production of offspring
  16. necessary life function growth
    • growth 
    • - increases in size of a body part or of               organism
  17. interdependence of body cell human are multicellular
    • - to function must keep individual cell alive
    • - all cells depend on organ systems to meet       their survival needs
    • - all body functions spread among different        organ systems
    • - organ systems cooperate to maintain life
  18. Survival needs - Nutrients
    • nutrients
    • - chemicals for energy and cell building
    • - carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals and      vitamins
  19. Survival needs - Oxygen
    • oxygen
    • - essential for energy release (ATP production)
  20. Survival needs - Water
    • water
    • - most abundant chemical in body
    • - environment of chemical reactions 
    • - fluid base for secretions and excretions
  21. Survival needs - normal body temp
    • temp 
    • - 37 Celsius or 98.6 f
    • - affects rate of chemical reactions
  22. Survival needs
    • appropriate atmospheric pressure
    • - or adequate breathing and gas exchange in     lungs
  23. Homeostasis
    • - Maintenance of relatively stable internal       conditions despite continuous changes in     environment
    • - a dynamic state of equilibrium
    • - Maintained by contributions of all organ       systems
  24. Homeostatic control mechanisms
    • - involve continuous monitoring and               regulation  of all factors that can change (    variables)
    • - communication necessary for monitoring     and   regulation
    • (function of the nervous and endocrine system)
    • - Nervous and endocrine systems accomplish   communication via nerve impulses and         hormones
  25. Components of Control Mechanism
    • Receptors ( sensor)
    •  - Monitors environment
    •  - Responds to stimuli
    • (something that causes changes in controlled variables)
  26. Control Mechanism - Control Center
    • - Control center (brain)
    • - Determines set point at which variables is       maintained
    • - Receives input from receptor
    • - Determines appropriate response
  27. Control Mechanism - Effectors
    • - Effectors ( the organ that responds)
    • - Receives output from control center
    • - Provides the means to respond
    • - Response either reduces (NF) or enhances        stimulus  (PF)
  28. Components of control mechanism
    • - RECEPTORS
    • - CONTROL CENTER
    • - EFFECTORS
  29. Negative Feedback (NF)
    • - most feedback mechanisms in body 
    • - response reduces or shuts off original              stimulus
    • --variable changes in opposite direction of initial change--
    • EXAMPLE
    • Regulation of body temp (nervous system)
    • Regulation of blood volume by ADH ( endocrine system)
  30. Negative Feedback: Regulation of blood volume by ADH
    • - Receptors sense decrease in blood volume
    • - Control center in hypothalamus stimulates       pituitary gland to release antiduiretic               hormone (ADH)
    • - ADH causes kidneys (effectors) to return          more water to the blood
  31. Positive Feedback (PF)
    • - Response enhances or exaggerates original      stimulus
    • - May exhibit a cascade or amplifying effect
    • - Usually controls infrequent events that do        not require continuous adjustment
    •    -- Enhancement of labor contractions by           oxytocin
    •    -- Platelet plug formation and blood                  clotting
  32. Homeostatic imbalance
    • - Disturbance of homeostasis
    • -- Increase risk o disease
    • -- Contributes to changes associated with           aging
    • -- If NF mechanisms are overwhelmed.
    • Destructive positive feedback mechanisms may take over ( heart failure)
  33. Anatomical position
    • - Body erect feet slightly apart, palms facing     forward, thumbs pointing away from the body
    • - Directional Terms will always refer to the          body in the anatomical position
  34. Superior/Inferior
    • Toward and away from the head respectively. 
    • (cannot be used in reference to limbs)
  35. Anterior/Posterior
    Toward the front and back of the body, because we are bipedal
  36. Regional terms
    • Axial - Head, neck and trunk
    • Appendicular - limbs
  37. Anatomical Variability
    • Humans differ externally and internally
    • - 90% of all structures present in bod match        description in textbook
    • - Nerve or blood vessel may be out of place
    • - Small muscle may be missing
    • - Extreme variations inconsistent with life
  38. body plane
    flat surface along which body or structure may be cut for anatomical study
  39. sections
    cuts or sections made along a body plane
  40. Three most common section
    • Sagittal plane - divides body vertically into       right and left parts.
    • Frontal (coronal ) plane - Divides body vertically into anterior and posterior parts
    • Transverse ( horizontal plane - Divides body horizontally ( 90% to vertical plane) into superior and inferior parts
  41. oblique section
    result of cuts at angle other than 90% to vertical plane

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