Scientific Writing and Research Ethics
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. What would you like to do?
What is dissemination of Scientific Findings?
- Journal Publication
- Presentation at Meetings
- Personal Contact
Disadvantage of blind review?
You can't get feedback if anon. and you might be a little harsher if author is known.
What are presentations at meetings?
Interactive way of presenting research. Often peer reviewed but less strict. Paper vs. Poster Session.
Paper Session: Presentation of research through PowerPoint.
Poster Session: Posters are made with research on it and people walk by and read information.
Who and what are the reviewers?
Reviewers can be anyone considered an expert by he editor (PhD holder etc.)
For blind reviews, reviewers are kept anonymous.
Reviewers for the same journal often may be asked to be on the editorial board. This means they will review more often for that journal.
Reviewers rate the manuscripts and also give constructive criticism.
What is a journal publication?
It is the primary method of research. Research submitted to journals. These are peer reviewed.
What is the peer review process?
Author's submit manuscripts to journals. Is gone through blind review which means the authors remove identifying information.
Journal editor or associate editor decide if it could be published. Then finds 2 to 5 scientists to read it and give honest assessment of quality.
Based on review the editor makes decision: accept, reject, or give opp. to revise and resubmit. (rare for them to be accepted the 1st time.)
If accepted it will be "in press" for up to 2 years.
Advantage of blind review?
Removing hostility from the writers towards reviewer.
Most are blind both ways but not all.
Abbreviations: for example, that is to say, versus?
Purpose of Peer Review?
Multiple perspectives on problems.
What is personal contact?
Knowing people in the field: conference, email contact, visitors on campus.
Which of the following is not an advantage of the peer review?
a. The decision to publish is informed by a panel of peer scientists.
b. The report can be vastly improved by following the feedback of the reviewers.
c. Because the reviewers are experts in the field, objectivity is guaranteed.
d. the process is efficient so important research findings quickly reach the intended audience.
Both c and d
Reference in text (APA): One work by one author?
Always provide the authors name and year the study was completed.
- ex: Walker (2000) compared reaction times...
- In a recent study of reaction times (Walker, 2000)
Reference in text (APA): Two authors?
When a work has two authors always cite both names every time the reference occurs. Use the word "and" when the author appears outside the parentheses and the "&" when the authors are inside the parentheses.
- ex: Walker and Moore (2000) found that...
- The results of the response time study (Walker & Moore, 2000)...
Reference in text (APA): One work by 3,4,or 5 authors?
Cite all authors first time the reference occurs. For all following include only the first author followed by et al. and the year.
Ex: Smith, Warren, Norman, and Sliver (2009) demonstrated...(1st citation)
Simth et al. (2009) also showed that (all other citatons)
Reference in text (APA): Six or more authors?
Cite only the 1st author followed by et al. and the year for both the first and following citations.
ex: Smith et al. (2010) demonstrated (all citations)
Reference in the text (APA): Two or more works by the same author(s) within the same parentheses?
ex: Past research (Brash & Timber, 1999, 2010) demonstrated...
Past research (Parker, 2001, 2008) demonstrated...
For several studies: Several studies (Bosco,2008; Listman & Smith, 2000, Walsh et al., 2010) have reported.
General APA Citation?
Author, A.A., Author,B.B., & Author , C.C. (year). Title of article: Capitalize first word after semicolom. Title of periodical, volume, (series), first page-last page. doi: 00000/00000000
Entire list should be alphabetical.
Reference List Examples:
Journal article, two authors:
- Journal Article, One author:
- Akshoomoff, N. (2002). Selective attention and active engagement in young children. Developmental Neuropsychology, 221 (2), 625-642. doi:10.1207/S15326942DN2203_4
Boysen, S.T., & Berntson, G.G. (1995). Response to quantity: Perceptual versus cognitive mechanism in chimpanzees (pantroglodytes). Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 21
(1), 82-86. doi:10.1037/0735-7036.115.1.106
(Rest of reference are on PP slide!!)
How many errors can you find in the following reference?
Miller, Stephanie Elizabeth, & Marcovitch, Stuart. (2011). Toddler Benefit from Labeling on an Executive Function Search Task. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 108, 580-592.
Correct Answer: e) 4
1. Only spell last name first and middle name are initials (Miller, S.E., Marcovitch, S.,)
2. Only the first letter of the article is a capitol letter. The rest is lowercase.
3. Journal needs to be in italics.
4. No Issue number.
5. No doi number.
(Not all journals have doi and issue # but most do!!)
What to avoid in APA writing?
- 1. Gender biased terms (motherese)
- 2. Political correct traps (he/she, (s)he).
- 3. Mental disorder word usage. Do not use Autistic children, schizophrenics, "retarded" people. Use words like children with autism, adults diagnosed with schizophrenia, people with mental retardation.
- 4. Passive sentences. We gave participants not Participants where given...
- 5. Vague Pronouns (this or that)
Things to use in APA writing?
- 1. Past tense
- 2. "who" refers to a descriptor of humans, "that" refers to nonhumans.
Commonly misused words in APA writing?
- 1. Affect vs. effect (verb vs. noun)
- 2. Data (Plural), Datum (Singular)
- 3. Ensure vs. Insure (Insure is for financial loss only)
- 4. its vs. it's (it's is it is)
- 5. While vs. since (since is used for time purposes only; since 1945 etc)
The parts of a research report?
- Title Page
- Abstract (Short Summary)
- Introduction (background, why they did the study?)
- Methods (What you did for the study? Participants, materials, procedure)
- Results (Your findings)
- Discussion (Explain findings and what they mean)
- Tables and Figures
What would you like to do?
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