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what is the largest order of mammals?
what does rodent mean?
what type of incisors to rodents have?
what does hipsodontic mean?
open rooted teeth that grow continuously throughout life
what teeth do rodents have?
single pair upper and lower incisors
how are rodents subclassified?
anatomy of masseter muscles
what are the three suborders of rodentia?
what is myomorpha?
what is sciuromorpha?
what is hystricomorpha?
what is the smallest rodent?
what is the largest mammal?
what is the taxonomy of the most common laboratory mouse?
Who and when donated the original breeding stock of Mus musculus?
early 20th century by Abbie Lathrop
who further developed Mus musculus into the modern laboratory mouse?
which mouse produced the first inbred strains?
why is the mouse so useful in research?
- easily maintained
- reproduces rapidly (quick life cycle)
- 95% similar to humans
what is an outbred stock?
genetically diverse line maintained by rotation mating scheme to maximize genetic diversity and to minimize brother-sister matings
what are two common examples of outbred stock?
what are the benefits of outbred stock?
- genetically diverse
- used where genetic diversity is desired or doesn't pose a problem
- larger, healthier, immunocompetent
what are some uses for outbred stocks?
- monoclonal antibody production
what is a sentinel?
a single mouse that is exposed to a mixture of used bedding from the other mice (usually in the same rack) to see if disease developes
what are the three options if the sentinel shows disease?
- treat all and retest
- euthanize and restart
- use clean off-spring
what is an inbred stock?
breeding mice that are closely related to produce offspring that are genetically identical
how is an inbred strain produced?
sibling-sibling mating (brother-sister)
how closely related are inbred strains?
98% identical after 20 generations
what are some used for inbred stocks?
- controlled studies
- strain-related health issues
what is a controlled study?
a study that needs reproducibility of conclusions
what are two example of a controlled study?
- behavioral study
what are some examples of strain-related health issues?
- microphtalmia or blindness
- early onset deafness
- mammary tumors
- ulcerative dermatitis
what is microphtalmia?
which mouse is most susceptible to blindness?
what are two common inbred strains?
what are two examples of immunodeficient mouse strains?
what is SCID?
severe combined immunodeficiency
what studies use immunodeficiency strains?
- tumor biology research
- immunology studies
what are the special requirements for immunodeficient mouse strains?
special housing & husbandry procedures
what are the unique characteristics of the nude mouse?
what is the benefit of not having a thymus?
it won't fight the cells from other species in a study that requires tumor growing
what is a unique characteristic of the SCID mouse?
lack B and T-cells
what type of study used the SCID mouse?
what are unique characteristics of genetically engineered mice?
- targeted mutants (knock-outs and knock-ins)
- "designer mice" created for specific purpose
- animal models of human diseases
- unknown immune status
- always inbred
what is thigmotaxis?
sensing with whiskers
what are the physical characteristics of a mouse?
- short coat
- black, brown, agouti, albino
- 5 toes with claws for climbing
- 5 pairs mammary glands
- hairless tail for balance
- life span 1.5 - 3 years
- adult weight 15-40 grams (average 25 grams)
what is the dental anatomy/physiology of a mouse?
- 1I/3M x 4 = 16 teeth
- large diastema between incisors and molars
what is the gastrointestinal anatomy/physiology of a mouse?
- limiting ridge (can't vomit)
- large cecum
what is the hematopoetic anatomy/physiology of a mouse?
spleen is site of lifelong hematopoesis
what is the reproduction anatomy/physiology of a mouse?
- bicornuate (two horns) uterus with one cervix
- prominent seminal vesicles
- female has 10 nipples; male none
- anogenital distance varies between sexes (male distance > female distance)
what is GEM?
genetically engineered mouse
what type of acclimatization behavior is typical of a mouse?
what is the thermoneutral zone for a mouse?
85.28 - 86.9 F
what temperature do unacclimated mice die?
> 89 F
what is the heart rate of a mouse?
what is the normal body temperature for a mouse?
95 - 102 F
what type of regulation of body heat is common for a mouse?
poor - can't pant or sweat therefore overheats easily
when does mouse mating occur?
dark cycle (night)
how long is the mouse estrus cycle?
what is the mouse gestation period?
when is the fertile postpartum estrus of a mouse?
14-24 hours after parturition
what is the litter size of a mouse?
what type of young are born from a mouse?
altricial: blind, hairless, totally dependent on mother; average birth weight 1 gram
when does a newborn mouse grow hair? eyes open?
when does a newborn mouse wean?
when is the sexual maturity for a mouse?
- 4 weeks (female)
- 6 weeks (male)
how often does a mouse breed?
polyestrus - year round
what are the nutritional requirements for a mouse?
- food: 1.5g/10g BW/day
- water: 1.5mL/10g BW/day
- essential linoleic acid (unsaturated omega-6 fatty acid)
- balanced, pelleted chow
what are the typical mouse behaviors?
- prey species (run away, hide, freeze)
- nest builders (some burrowers)
- dominance hierarchies
- intermale aggression common
- cannibalism during maternal stress/disturbance
what is the purpose of nest building?
- pup survivial
- temperature regulation
how do mice communicate?
- ultrasonic vocalization
what is the second most common lab animal?
what is the taxonomy of the brown rat?
what is the genus of the rate?
how long have rats been used in research?
how are rats used in the lab environment?
- drug studies
- naturally occurring disease models
what are some examples of outbred rat stocks?
- Sprague Dawley
what are some examples of inbred rat strains?
which rat is immunodeficient?
athymic nude rats
what is the average adult weight of a rat?
how many pairs of mammary glands on a rat?
what is the natural life span of a rat?
what are the common colors of the rat?
white, brown, hooded
what are the rat unique anatomical and physiological differences from a mouse?
- no gall bladder
- bicornuate uterus with two cervixes
- long bones may grow up to 1 year
- broader thermoneutral zone
what is the heart rate for a rat?
what is the rat estrus cycle?
what is the rat gestation period?
what is the rat litter size?
what type of newborn rats?
what is the birth weight of a newborn rat?
when do rats grow hair? open eyes?
when do rats wean?
what is the sexual maturity for rats?
- 4 weeks (female)
- 6 weeks (male)
what are the nutritional requirements for a rat?
- food: 20-30 g/day
- water: 115 mL/kg/day
what is typical rat behavior?
- more domesticated
- aggression to humans dependent on strain
- cannibalism rare
- dominance hierarchies
what is "gentling"?
what type of communication is used by rats?
what is the taxonomy for the Syrian hamster?
What is the genus for the Syrian hamster?
what is the nickname for the Syrian hamster?
How was the Syrian hamster developed?
desert rodent captured in Syria in 1930s
what is the third most common lab animal?
what types of studies are conducted using Syrian hamsters?
immunology, cancer research, prion research (mad cow), dilated cardiomyopathy
what are the typical physical characteristics of a hamster?
- short, stocky body
- no tail
- 4 toes front, 5 toes back
- 4 pairs mammary glands
- flank glands
what is the purpose of the flank glands on a hamster?
- male - mark territory
- female - associated with estrus cycle
what is the life span for a hamster?
what is the adult weight of a hamster?
90-150 g (females larger)
what is the heart rate of a hamster?
what is the hamster respiration?
33-125 bpm (average 72)
what is the body temperature of a hamster?
what is the dental formula for the hamster?
- 2(I 1/1 C 0/0 P 0/0 M 3/3)
- same as rats and mice
what is the unique characteristic of the hamster's stomach?
- 2 compartments:
- nonglandular forestomach similar to rumen for fermentation
- glandular distal portion
what is a unique characteristic of cheek pouches of the hamster?
- "immunologically privileged"
- tumors from man not rejected
- used for tumor implantation & carcinogen studies
what are hamsters highly sensitive to?
what is the hamster estrus cycle?
when does breeding occur?
- evening of the 3rd following appearance of postovulatory vaginal discharge
- no fertile postpartum estrus
what is the hamster gestation?
what is the litter size for hamster?
what type of newborn for hamsters?
- exploratory behavior at 1 week
when do hamsters wean?
what is the breeding age for hamsters?
90 days and/or 90 grams
what are the nutritional requirements for the hamster?
- low water requirement: 5mL/100g BW/day (reduced excretion)
- 10-15 g commercial pellets/day
what is the typical behavior for hamsters?
- females larger & more aggressive
- wake up cranky
- fight if housed together
- escape artists
- hibernate in wild to survive harsh climates
what is the taxonomy of the guinea pig?
which research studies use guinea pigs?
tuberculosis, vitamin C metabolism, pregnancy complications, plastic surgery
what is the most common outbred stock of guinea pigs?
which type of guinea pig is used plastic surgery studies?
hairless - tattoo removal
what are the physical characteristics of the guinea pig?
- stocky body, short legs, short tail
- don't jump, poor climbers
- 4 toes front, 3 toes back
- 1 pair mammary glands
- large adrenal glands
what is the adult weight of guinea pigs?
what is the newborn weight of guinea pigs?
what is the life span of guinea pigs?
what is the heart rate of guinea pigs?
what is the dental formula for guinea pigs?
2( I 1/1 C 0/0 P 1/1 M 3/3) = 20
what makes intubation difficult for guinea pigs?
what do guinea pigs lack?
what is the purpose of L-gluconolactone oxidase?
synthesize vitamin C
what is the unique dietary requirement for guinea pigs?
what is the body temperature for guinea pigs?
what is the heart rate for guinea pigs?
what is the respiration rate for guinea pigs?
what is the sexual maturity for guinea pigs?
what is the gestation for guinea pigs?
what type of newborn for guinea pigs?
what litter size for guinea pigs?
what are characteristics of guinea pig pups?
large, haired, mobile
what are some common reproduction complications with guinea pigs?
- uterine prolapse
what are the nutritional requirements for guinea pigs?
- hervibores and cecal fermenters
- food: 6 g/100g BW/day
- water: 10 mL/100g BW/day
- require vitamin C
why are guinea pigs coprophagic?
vitamins B & K
what is the primary constituent of a natural diet for guinea pigs?
what are some complications for vitamin C deficiency?
- defective collagen
- stunted growth
- delayed wound healing
- impaired tooth and bone formation
what is typical guinea pig behavior?
- very social
- not aggressive with people
- chew off ear tages
- "stampeding" behavior
- messing eaters
what is stampeding?
haphazard running to confuse predators/aggressors
what is thigmotactic?
feel way around
what are the considerations for rodent husbandry?
what are examples of different types of housing?
- shoebox caging
- rack systems
what is shoebox caging?
microisolator cage with filter in top to excludes pathogens and traps moisture and gases made from polycarbonate material
what is the ventilated rack system?
- keeps cages dry - longer interval between changeouts
- used with water bottles or auto water system
which type of housing suitable for mice, rats and hamsters?
what type of housing is suitable for guinea pigs?
individually ventilated cage
what type of water is used for lab animals?
municipal water treated
how is municipal water treated for lab animals?
- reverse osmosis
what are the types of water delivery?
- water bottles
- sipper sacks
what are the common beddings used for lab animals?
- cellulose products
- wood pup, wood chips
what is the light cycle for lab animals?
12:12 (possibly 14:10 in breeding rooms)
what is the light intensity for lab animals?
30 foot candles 1 meter from floor in center of room
what is the room temperature for lab animals?
how many air changes per hour are required for lab animals?
what is the humidity level for lab animals?
what are some common husbandry and environmental problems?
- fight wounds
- wet cages
- "lost" litters; pregnancy failures
- poor breeding performance
- ammonia odor
- thin, hunched posture
what is a possible cause for overcrowding?
breeding cages not separated at weaning
what are possible causes for fight wounds?
- switching mice between cages
what are possible causes for wet cages?
- leaky bottle
- animals playing with drinking valves
- diabetic animals
what are possible causes for "lost" litters or pregnancy failures?
- implantation failure due to noise, vibration
- cannibalism due to stress
what are possible causes for poor breeding performance?
incorrect light cycle
what are possible causes for ammonia odor?
- time for change-out
- improper air balance or number or air change-outs/hour
what are possible causes for thin, hunched posture?
- water supply