Lab Animal - Week 2

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  1. what is the largest order of mammals?
  2. what does rodent mean?
    to gnaw
  3. what type of incisors to rodents have?
  4. what does hipsodontic mean?
    open rooted teeth that grow continuously throughout life
  5. what teeth do rodents have?
    single pair upper and lower incisors
  6. how are rodents subclassified?
    anatomy of masseter muscles
  7. what are the three suborders of rodentia?
    • myomorpha
    • sciuomorpha
    • hystricomorpha
  8. what is myomorpha?
  9. what is sciuromorpha?
  10. what is hystricomorpha?
    guinea pig-like
  11. what is the smallest rodent?
    Pygmy jerboa
  12. what is the largest mammal?
  13. what is the taxonomy of the most common laboratory mouse?
    Mus musculus
  14. Who and when donated the original breeding stock of Mus musculus?
    early 20th century by Abbie Lathrop
  15. who further developed Mus musculus into the modern laboratory mouse?
    Clarence Cook
  16. which mouse produced the first inbred strains?
    Mus musculus
  17. why is the mouse so useful in research?
    • small
    • inexpensive
    • easily maintained
    • reproduces rapidly (quick life cycle)
    • 95% similar to humans
  18. what is an outbred stock?
    genetically diverse line maintained by rotation mating scheme to maximize genetic diversity and to minimize brother-sister matings
  19. what are two common examples of outbred stock?
    • CD-1
    • Swiss webster
  20. what are the benefits of outbred stock?
    • genetically diverse
    • used where genetic diversity is desired or doesn't pose a problem
    • larger, healthier, immunocompetent
  21. what are some uses for outbred stocks?
    • monoclonal antibody production
    • sentinels
  22. what is a sentinel?
    a single mouse that is exposed to a mixture of used bedding from the other mice (usually in the same rack) to see if disease developes
  23. what are the three options if the sentinel shows disease?
    • treat all and retest
    • euthanize and restart
    • use clean off-spring
  24. what is an inbred stock?
    breeding mice that are closely related to produce offspring that are genetically identical
  25. how is an inbred strain produced?
    sibling-sibling mating (brother-sister)
  26. how closely related are inbred strains?
    98% identical after 20 generations
  27. what are some used for inbred stocks?
    • controlled studies
    • strain-related health issues
  28. what is a controlled study?
    a study that needs reproducibility of conclusions
  29. what are two example of a controlled study?
    • toxicology
    • behavioral study
  30. what are some examples of strain-related health issues?
    • microphtalmia or blindness
    • early onset deafness
    • mammary tumors
    • ulcerative dermatitis
  31. what is microphtalmia?
    small eyes
  32. which mouse is most susceptible to blindness?
  33. what are two common inbred strains?
    • Balb/C
    • C57Bl/6
  34. what are two examples of immunodeficient mouse strains?
    • nude
    • SCID
  35. what is SCID?
    severe combined immunodeficiency
  36. what studies use immunodeficiency strains?
    • tumor biology research
    • immunology studies
  37. what are the special requirements for immunodeficient mouse strains?
    special housing & husbandry procedures
  38. what are the unique characteristics of the nude mouse?
    • no thymus
    • lack T-cells
  39. what is the benefit of not having a thymus?
    it won't fight the cells from other species in a study that requires tumor growing
  40. what is a unique characteristic of the SCID mouse?
    lack B and T-cells
  41. what type of study used the SCID mouse?
  42. what are unique characteristics of genetically engineered mice?
    • transgenics
    • targeted mutants (knock-outs and knock-ins)
    • "designer mice" created for specific purpose
    • animal models of human diseases
    • unknown immune status
    • always inbred
  43. what is thigmotaxis?
    sensing with whiskers
  44. what are the physical characteristics of a mouse?
    • short coat
    • black, brown, agouti, albino
    • 5 toes with claws for climbing
    • 5 pairs mammary glands
    • hairless tail for balance
    • life span 1.5 - 3 years
    • adult weight 15-40 grams (average 25 grams)
  45. what is the dental anatomy/physiology of a mouse?
    • 1I/3M x 4 = 16 teeth
    • large diastema between incisors and molars
  46. what is diastema?
  47. what is the gastrointestinal anatomy/physiology of a mouse?
    • limiting ridge (can't vomit)
    • large cecum
  48. what is the hematopoetic anatomy/physiology of a mouse?
    spleen is site of lifelong hematopoesis
  49. what is the reproduction anatomy/physiology of a mouse?
    • bicornuate (two horns) uterus with one cervix
    • prominent seminal vesicles
    • female has 10 nipples; male none
    • anogenital distance varies between sexes (male distance > female distance)
  50. what is GEM?
    genetically engineered mouse
  51. what type of acclimatization behavior is typical of a mouse?
  52. what is the thermoneutral zone for a mouse?
    85.28 - 86.9 F
  53. what temperature do unacclimated mice die?
    > 89 F
  54. what is the heart rate of a mouse?
    400-600 bpm
  55. what is the normal body temperature for a mouse?
    95 - 102 F
  56. what type of regulation of body heat is common for a mouse?
    poor - can't pant or sweat therefore overheats easily
  57. when does mouse mating occur?
    dark cycle (night)
  58. how long is the mouse estrus cycle?
    4 days
  59. what is the mouse gestation period?
    19-21 days
  60. when is the fertile postpartum estrus of a mouse?
    14-24 hours after parturition
  61. what is the litter size of a mouse?
  62. what type of young are born from a mouse?
    altricial: blind, hairless, totally dependent on mother; average birth weight 1 gram
  63. when does a newborn mouse grow hair? eyes open?
    • 10 days
    • 14 days
  64. when does a newborn mouse wean?
    21 days
  65. when is the sexual maturity for a mouse?
    • 4 weeks (female)
    • 6 weeks (male)
  66. how often does a mouse breed?
    polyestrus - year round
  67. what are the nutritional requirements for a mouse?
    • omnivorous
    • food: 1.5g/10g BW/day
    • water: 1.5mL/10g BW/day
    • essential linoleic acid (unsaturated omega-6 fatty acid)
    • coprophagic
    • balanced, pelleted chow
  68. what are the typical mouse behaviors?
    • prey species (run away, hide, freeze)
    • social
    • nest builders (some burrowers)
    • nocturnal
    • dominance hierarchies
    • grooming
    • intermale aggression common
    • cannibalism during maternal stress/disturbance
  69. what is the purpose of nest building?
    • pup survivial
    • temperature regulation
    • protection
  70. how do mice communicate?
    • perhomones
    • ultrasonic vocalization
  71. what is the second most common lab animal?
  72. what is the taxonomy of the brown rat?
    Rattus norvegicus
  73. what is the genus of the rate?
    Mesocricetus auratus
  74. how long have rats been used in research?
    since 1800's
  75. how are rats used in the lab environment?
    • toxicology
    • physiology
    • drug studies
    • naturally occurring disease models
  76. what are some examples of outbred rat stocks?
    • Wistar
    • Sprague Dawley
    • Long-Evans
  77. what are some examples of inbred rat strains?
    • Fisher 344
    • Lewis
  78. which rat is immunodeficient?
    athymic nude rats
  79. what is the average adult weight of a rat?
  80. how many pairs of mammary glands on a rat?
    6 pairs
  81. what is the natural life span of a rat?
    2-5 years
  82. what are the common colors of the rat?
    white, brown, hooded
  83. what are the rat unique anatomical and physiological differences from a mouse?
    • no gall bladder
    • bicornuate uterus with two cervixes
    • long bones may grow up to 1 year
    • broader thermoneutral zone
  84. what is the heart rate for a rat?
    200-400 bpm
  85. what is the rat estrus cycle?
    4-5 days
  86. what is the rat gestation period?
    21-33 days
  87. what is the rat litter size?
  88. what type of newborn rats?
  89. what is the birth weight of a newborn rat?
    5 g
  90. when do rats grow hair? open eyes?
    • 10 days
    • 14 days
  91. when do rats wean?
    21 days
  92. what is the sexual maturity for rats?
    • 4 weeks (female)
    • 6 weeks (male)
  93. what are the nutritional requirements for a rat?
    • omnivores
    • food: 20-30 g/day
    • water: 115 mL/kg/day
  94. what is typical rat behavior?
    • more domesticated
    • social
    • aggression to humans dependent on strain
    • cannibalism rare
    • dominance hierarchies
    • "gentling"
  95. what is "gentling"?
    handled often
  96. what type of communication is used by rats?
    ultrasonic communication
  97. what is the taxonomy for the Syrian hamster?
    Mesocricetus aureus
  98. What is the genus for the Syrian hamster?
    Mesocricetus auratus
  99. what is the nickname for the Syrian hamster?
    • golden
    • "teddy bear"
  100. How was the Syrian hamster developed?
    desert rodent captured in Syria in 1930s
  101. what is the third most common lab animal?
    Syrian hamster
  102. what types of studies are conducted using Syrian hamsters?
    immunology, cancer research, prion research (mad cow), dilated cardiomyopathy
  103. what are the typical physical characteristics of a hamster?
    • short, stocky body
    • no tail
    • 4 toes front, 5 toes back
    • 4 pairs mammary glands
    • flank glands
  104. what is the purpose of the flank glands on a hamster?
    • male - mark territory
    • female - associated with estrus cycle
  105. what is the life span for a hamster?
    1-3 years
  106. what is the adult weight of a hamster?
    90-150 g (females larger)
  107. what is the heart rate of a hamster?
    250-500 bpm
  108. what is the hamster respiration?
    33-125 bpm (average 72)
  109. what is the body temperature of a hamster?
    97.2-99.5 F
  110. what is the dental formula for the hamster?
    • 2(I 1/1 C 0/0 P 0/0 M 3/3)
    • same as rats and mice
  111. what is the unique characteristic of the hamster's stomach?
    • 2 compartments:
    • nonglandular forestomach similar to rumen for fermentation
    • glandular distal portion
  112. what is a unique characteristic of cheek pouches of the hamster?
    • "immunologically privileged"
    • tumors from man not rejected
    • used for tumor implantation & carcinogen studies
  113. what are hamsters highly sensitive to?
    antibiotics....clostridial enteritis
  114. what is the hamster estrus cycle?
    4 days
  115. when does breeding occur?
    • evening of the 3rd following appearance of postovulatory vaginal discharge
    • no fertile postpartum estrus
  116. what is the hamster gestation?
    16-18 days
  117. what is the litter size for hamster?
    4-12 pups
  118. what type of newborn for hamsters?
    • altricial
    • exploratory behavior at 1 week
  119. when do hamsters wean?
    25 days
  120. what is the breeding age for hamsters?
    90 days and/or 90 grams
  121. what are the nutritional requirements for the hamster?
    • omnivores
    • low water requirement: 5mL/100g BW/day (reduced excretion)
    • 10-15 g commercial pellets/day
  122. what is the typical behavior for hamsters?
    • solitary
    • nocturnal/crepuscular
    • females larger & more aggressive
    • wake up cranky
    • fight if housed together
    • escape artists
    • hibernate in wild to survive harsh climates
  123. what is the taxonomy of the guinea pig?
    Cavia porcellus
  124. which research studies use guinea pigs?
    tuberculosis, vitamin C metabolism, pregnancy complications, plastic surgery
  125. what is the most common outbred stock of guinea pigs?
  126. which type of guinea pig is used plastic surgery studies?
    hairless - tattoo removal
  127. what are the physical characteristics of the guinea pig?
    • stocky body, short legs, short tail
    • don't jump, poor climbers
    • 4 toes front, 3 toes back
    • 1 pair mammary glands
    • large adrenal glands
  128. what is the adult weight of guinea pigs?
    750-1000 g
  129. what is the newborn weight of guinea pigs?
    60-100 g
  130. what is the life span of guinea pigs?
    3-5 years
  131. what is the heart rate of guinea pigs?
    240-300 bpm
  132. what is the dental formula for guinea pigs?
    2( I 1/1 C 0/0 P 1/1 M 3/3) = 20
  133. what makes intubation difficult for guinea pigs?
    palatal ostium
  134. what do guinea pigs lack?
    L-gluconolactone oxidase
  135. what is the purpose of L-gluconolactone oxidase?
    synthesize vitamin C
  136. what is the unique dietary requirement for guinea pigs?
    vitamin C
  137. what is the body temperature for guinea pigs?
    99-103 F
  138. what is the heart rate for guinea pigs?
    240-350 bpm
  139. what is the respiration rate for guinea pigs?
    40-150 bpm
  140. what is the sexual maturity for guinea pigs?
    4-6 weeks
  141. what is the gestation for guinea pigs?
    59-72 days
  142. what type of newborn for guinea pigs?
  143. what litter size for guinea pigs?
    2-5 pups
  144. what are characteristics of guinea pig pups?
    large, haired, mobile
  145. what are some common reproduction complications with guinea pigs?
    • dystocia
    • ypocalcemia
    • uterine prolapse
  146. what are the nutritional requirements for guinea pigs?
    • hervibores and cecal fermenters
    • food: 6 g/100g BW/day
    • water: 10 mL/100g BW/day
    • require vitamin C
  147. why are guinea pigs coprophagic?
    vitamins B & K
  148. what is the primary constituent of a natural diet for guinea pigs?
  149. what are some complications for vitamin C deficiency?
    • defective collagen
    • stunted growth
    • bleeding
    • delayed wound healing
    • impaired tooth and bone formation
  150. what is typical guinea pig behavior?
    • very social
    • thigmotactic
    • not aggressive with people
    • chew off ear tages
    • "stampeding" behavior
    • messing eaters
  151. what is stampeding?
    haphazard running to confuse predators/aggressors
  152. what is thigmotactic?
    feel way around
  153. what are the considerations for rodent husbandry?
    • housing
    • food
    • water
    • sanitation
  154. what are examples of different types of housing?
    • shoebox caging
    • rack systems
  155. what is shoebox caging?
    microisolator cage with filter in top to excludes pathogens and traps moisture and gases made from polycarbonate material
  156. what is rack systems?
    • flat shelf
    • ventilated
  157. what is the ventilated rack system?
    • keeps cages dry - longer interval between changeouts
    • used with water bottles or auto water system
  158. which type of housing suitable for mice, rats and hamsters?
    microisolator/rack systems
  159. what type of housing is suitable for guinea pigs?
    file drawer
  160. what IVC?
    individually ventilated cage
  161. what type of water is used for lab animals?
    municipal water treated
  162. how is municipal water treated for lab animals?
    • reverse osmosis
    • autoclaving
    • acidifcation
    • hyperchlorination
  163. what are the types of water delivery?
    • automatic
    • water bottles
    • sipper sacks
  164. what are the common beddings used for lab animals?
    • corncob
    • cellulose products
    • wood pup, wood chips
  165. what is the light cycle for lab animals?
    12:12 (possibly 14:10 in breeding rooms)
  166. what is the light intensity for lab animals?
    30 foot candles 1 meter from floor in center of room
  167. what is the room temperature for lab animals?
    64-79 F
  168. how many air changes per hour are required for lab animals?
  169. what is the humidity level for lab animals?
  170. what are some common husbandry and environmental problems?
    • overcrowding
    • fight wounds
    • wet cages
    • "lost" litters; pregnancy failures
    • poor breeding performance
    • ammonia odor
    • thin, hunched posture
  171. what is a possible cause for overcrowding?
    breeding cages not separated at weaning
  172. what are possible causes for fight wounds?
    • switching mice between cages
    • overcrowding
  173. what are possible causes for wet cages?
    • leaky bottle
    • animals playing with drinking valves
    • diabetic animals
  174. what are possible causes for "lost" litters or pregnancy failures?
    • implantation failure due to noise, vibration
    • cannibalism due to stress
  175. what are possible causes for poor breeding performance?
    incorrect light cycle
  176. what are possible causes for ammonia odor?
    • time for change-out
    • improper air balance or number or air change-outs/hour
  177. what are possible causes for thin, hunched posture?
    • environment
    • water supply
    • teeth
Card Set:
Lab Animal - Week 2
2013-09-09 02:55:22
vet tech lab animal

VT Tomball lab animal
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