RAD-128-Medical Principles Ethics Ch.2
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What are the two organizations of the radiologic technologists?
ASRT and ARRT
What is the JRCERT?
are a group of persons appointed by sponsoring organizations to oversee the accreditation process
What career path has an x ray tech evolved from to become a profession?
What is the definition of a profession?
implies that an occupation requires extended training and education of its members who have skills and serve a specific social need
Do all professions have a code of ethics and professional organizations that control educational practices and requirements?
What professional organization is the ASRT (American society of Radiologic technologists)?
State and local organization
What organization requires state licensure and or radiologic technologists?
the ARRT organization
What are the 7 standards of a profession?
- life-long learning
What members deal with the accreditation of certain schools?
JRCERT (Joint Review Committee Education in Radiologic Technology)
Where are the recommendations forwarded to after it passed to the JRCERT?
It is forwarded to the CAHEA (Committee on Allied Health Education, where the final accreditation is made
Explain the accreditation process:
- Starts w/ application from program to JRCERT
- then a self study must be taken place on the standards by accrediting agency
- then a team of visitors are sent to the site to verify the info provided in the self study
- the site visitors then send a report to acc. agency
- Report is reviewed by agency staff and presented to the board accreditation status
List the accreditation status classifications:
provisional; 1-,2-,3-,5 and 8-years and probationary
What accreditation did MCC receive?
8 year accreditation
How long does the accreditation process take from the JRCERT?
What causes the removal of your certification?
failure to pay or meet continuing educational requirements
What are the title designations for Registered technologist, Radiographer, Radiation therapist, Nuclear medicine, Registered Diagnostic Medical Sonographer?
- Radiologic tech = (T)
- Radiographer - (R)
- Radiation therapist = (T)
- Nuclear medicine = (N)
- Registered Diagnostic Medical Sonographer = (RDMS)
List the advanced level examinations, with initials
- CT = computed tomography
- CV = cardiovascular
- IT = Interventional
- VT = vascular technology
- M = Mammography
- QM = quality assurance/management
- BD = Bone densitometry
- MRI = magnetic resonance imaging
How many credits are required for radiologic techs for continuing education?How many years
What are the three main professional societies?
- ASRT= american society of radiologic technologists
- ARHA = assocaiation of educators in radiologic sciences
- AERS = American radiology healthcare administrators
what professions are consisted of the health care team?
- respiratory therapists
- lab techs
- radiologic techs
What are ethics?
Ethics is defined as a set of moral principles that govern ones course of action
What are moral principles?
they are a set of standards that establish is right or wrong
List the 7 subactegories of ethics?
What are bioethics?
it is a branch of ethics that was established because of the advanced technical methods of prolonging life
it pertains solely to the ethics in the field of the health care
What are the 2 parts of the "Code of Ethics"?
Code of ethics - is intended to assist RT's and candidates in maintaing a high level of ethical conduct and in providing for the protection, safety and comfort to patients.
rules of ethics - they are mandatory and directive specific of minimally acceptable professional conduct for all RT's and candidates
Can the radiographer display the results of the xray to the patient or the family?
What are the patient responsiblities?
- Providing accurate health history
- keeping up with appointments
- refusal of treatment
- financial obligations
- following hospital rules and regulations
- being considerate of the rights and property of others
what is the tort law?
exists to protect the violator of a law from being sued for an act of vengeance, to determine fault, and to compensate the injured party.
What are the two classifications of the law?
criminal law and civil law
What is a tort?
- involves personal injury or damage resulting in civil action or litigation to obtain reparation for
- damages occurred.
What are the two types of torts and explain both?
- Intentional tort = is a purposeful deed
- committed with the intention of producing the consequences of the deed
- unintentional tort = when a radiographer is
- negligent in the performance of patient care and the patient is injured as a
Explain examples of intentional tort?
- –Immobilizing a patient against
- his or her will (false imprisonment)
- –Falsely stating a patient has
- AIDS (defamation of character)
- –Causing extreme emotional
- distress-resulting illness through outrages or shocking conduct
List examples of unintentional tort?
- –Improper marking radiographic
–Omitting to apply gonadal shielding
- –Handing the Radiologist the
- incorrect syringe during a procedure with the incorrect medication
- –Leaving a patient unattended with
- bed rails down and having the patient fall off the gurney
What must be obtained first before immobilizing a patient?
Can patients be immobilized for the convenience of the radiographer?
What is unauthorized use immobilization technique that can be construed as false imprisonment?
when can immobilization of the patient be used?
The method of immobilization must be one that is the least restrictive to the patient’s movement and freedom
What happens if an injury to a patient or error is made by the RT?
it must be documented and reported asap and must be factual
What is the patient safety reporting?
established the framework for which doctors, hospital, and other health care provider’s report voluntary information to patient safety organizations.
What are the good samaritan laws?
These laws were enacted to protect persons who give medical aid to persons in emergency situations from civil or criminal liability for their actions
What is the informed consent?
A consent is a contract wherein the patient voluntarily gives permission to perform a service
- Many procedures performed
- in the diagnostic imaging departments require special consent forms to be signed by the patient or parent/guardian
What is simple consent?
obtaining a patient’s permission to perform a procedure, without knowledge of that procedure.
What is express, implied, inadequate consent?
occurs when the patient does not stop the procedure from taking place.
- Implied consent occurs in emergency
- situations when it is not possible to obtain consent.
- Inadequate consent – aka- Ignorant
- consent. This occurs when the patient
- has not been informed adequately to make a responsible decision
What is malpractice?
- is a wrongful act by a physician, lawyer, or
- other professional which injures a patient or client.
What are medical records?
What are they known as and what reasons are they kept for?
medical records (electronic or hardcopy) is kept for each patient who seeks medical treatment
Known as charts
- History information
- Patient safety & protection –
- medical errors
Protection during litigation
- Information for The Joint
What is one of the first questions we must ask all female patients within child bearing age prior to taking an xray?
- when was their last menstrual period
- must document patients answer and follow department protocol
What factors must be part of the patients medical record when in use of legal evidence in the event of a lawsuit?
- patients name
- id number
- name and facility
- correct placement of R or L marker
What must done prior to the release of patient records
Can radiographs ever leave the hospital?
a consent written or signed by the patient or legal guardian
What other factors must the radiographer address prior to the xray when applicable?
- female - LMP
- history of allergies
- vital signs (heart rate blood pressure, breathing rate and body temperature)
What was passed by the congress in 1996?
HIPPA - enacted to protect the privacy of patients health information
what are ethics
a set of moral principles that governs one's course of action
what are moral principles
are a set of standards that establish what is right or good
who are the site visitors of the accreditation process?
volunteers from the profession who serve without pay
Is the certification of student the educators responsibility?
no the student has to be responsible of when to take it
what is the fee if a person does not recieve their certification?
What happens if a person does not meet their continuing education requirements?
removal of their certification
in what year was the arrt founded
in what year was the hipaa enacted?
in what year did become mandated that all RT's must proceed in continued education?
what is the DEP
department of environmental protection
what is the national professional organization of radiologic techs?
All individuals have a personal code of ethics that are based on what?
cultural and environmental background
rules of conduct and minimal practice standards are made by who?
asrt and arrt
what do you do if a combative patient arises?
when can you use medication to immobilize a patient?
in extreme cases and done by physicians orders
If a patient is a injured, should you report the situation?
yes it must be documented in an incident report asap and submitted to department procedure and policy
in what year was the patient safety and quality improvement act was signed by bush?
in what year was the patient safety and quality improvement final rule issued (same as other one)?
what is a consent
- a contract wherein the
- patient voluntarily gives permission to perform a service.
Can the patient refuse or continue a radiographic procedure?
and should they be informed about all procedures prior to signing a consent?
in order to release patient records what must be taken place first?
written consent or signed by a legal guardian
what are the three computer applications in imaging departments
List the benefits of these:
- electronic medical info systems
- digital image systems
- –Immediate access to information
- or images from all areas of hospital or health care network, minimizing lost
–Transporting and storage cost
In November 1999, the
Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) published:
proposed regulations to guarantee patients new rights and protection against the misuse or disclosure of their health records.
what was enacted as part of the
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and signed into law on February
- the Health Information
- Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act
List the health care delivery:
•Prospective Payment System
•Managed Care Organizations
•Point of Service Plans
•Physician Hospital Organizations
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