Geog 121: Lecture 5

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Geog 121: Lecture 5
2013-09-09 07:12:36

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  1. 3 Pillars of food security
    • 1. Food availability
    • -sufficient quantities of food available on a consistent basis
    • 2. Food access
    • – having sufficient resources to obtain appropriate foods for a nutritious diet
    • 3. Food use
    • – appropriate use based on knowledge of basic nutrition and care, as well as adequate water and sanitation
  2. Why is food security important?
    • -Important because food production and the ability to feed oneself is key to whatever they will be able to conserve the environment
    • -Peoples main drive is able to survive themselves
    • -People will do all kind of things to the environment if they are hungry
  3. How is food security defined?
    • -defined as when all people at all times have access to sufficient, safe, nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life
    • -Everyone has enough food at all times that is actually nutritious food that allow them to be healthy, active and production
    • -Commonly defined as having both physical and affordable food
    • -Food must also meet dietary preferences
  4. Arguments against food security
    • 1. There is enough food in the world to feed everyone adequately, the problems is distribution
    • -who's going to pay for distributing around the world to people that actually need food
    • -complicated to distribute food
    • 2. Future food needs can or cannot be met by current levels of production
    • 3. National food security is paramount or no longer necessary because of global trade
    • 4. Globalization may or may not lead to the persistence of food security and poverty in rural communities
    • -Developing countries (i.e. Chile) recognize that agriculture can save and export their food instead of using it (sold fruit to northern hemisphere when their seasonal plants weren’t growing)
    • -Turned pristine forests and water ways into agricultural lands to export food
    • -Agricultural power house with no food security
  5. Largest importer of apples
  6. Largest producers of apples in order:
    • 1. China (50%), 
    • 2. USA
    • 3. India
  7. largest importer of apples
  8. How much apple juice we drink is imported in the US?
    • -85% of apple juice we drink is imported
    • -100% of the imported apple juice comes from china
  9. Grapes: Largest exporter
    • -Chile is the largest exporter of grapes
    • -Combined countries of EU import 1/3 of grape production
  10. Grapes
    • -Between 1970 to 1980 Chile’s total agricultural out put was 400 million tons and by 1990 the total had reached 1.3 billion tons
    • -They converted their land very fast, thus not thinking of environmental consequences
  11. Chiquita
    • -American company
    • -Although the product is coming from Chile, and the Chilean government is making money off the agricultural steam, Chiquita and the USA are getting the best benefits
    • -Beneficiary from the system is not the country producing the food
  12. Wheat
    • -always important to the nutrition in the world
    • -cheap, readily available, lots grow
    • -due to not growing where it should be growing it is more susceptible to disease, drought, which causes problems to countries who depend on it
    • -impacts globally because one country (ex. China) will need more and buy from another country which will stop selling to another
  13. Wheat: Top producers
    • 1. China
    • 2. India
    • 3. Russia
    • 4. USA
    • *top three are where wheat had to be introduced
  14. Wheat: Top Exporter
    • 1. USA
    • *largest percentage going to China
  15. Wheat: Largest Importer
    • 1. Egypt
    • 2. China
    • 3. Brazil
  16. Soybeans/palm oils
    • -More rainforests is being removed for the production of soybeans/palm oils than it is for cattle
    • -Items that were usually environmentally friendly are actually hurting more than their counterparts
  17. Bananas
    • -Tropical food
    • -One of the most popular items of all items consumed in the world
  18. Banana Wars
    • -Early 20th century the USA owned the United Fruit Company (became Chaquita)
    • -UFC acquired a very profitable (virtual monopoly) of banana production in Central America
    • -UFC constructed network of railways, ports, roads, etc.UFC became so influential over national political systems in Central America that they came to be seen as an extension of the USA government
    • -Guatemala – USA constructed a coup in 1954 to remove the president (Guzman) that had tried to resist the influence of the UFC
    • -Guzman took over and confiscated 400 acres of land from the UFC to give it to the landless poor
    • -Guzman retaliated by using a scorch earth method of war where he set fire to villages, farmland, etc.
    • -United States vs. European Union:USA corporate banana production had strangle hold on banana production in Central America which the EU thought was not fair that no one else could profit from it
  19. Nicaraguan bananas
    • -Dole workers became sterile while working at factory
    • -Chemical being sprayed on bananas to prevent disease
    • -Chemical being sprayed cause sterility
    • -Dole can’t use it in USA now but can in developing countries
    • -Took 20 years for Dole to settle the case due to law suit constantly being sent from USA to Guatemala
    • -Nicaraguan bananas go to Guatemala because Guatemalan bananas go to the USA and Nicaraguan gets bananas from Honduras
  20. Coffee
    • -Top producers in order – Brazil, Vietnam, Colombia
    • -People drink a lot of coffee
    • -Relatively easy to grow because it likes volcanic soil and on hillsides
    • -Can grow in places that are not conducive to growing in other places
    • -Not horrendous to cultivate and grow
    • -Other crops can be grown around/underneath it
  21. Tea Bushes, Kenya
    • -13 pounds of leaves must be collected by worker every hour
    • -Top leaves with new buds picked, have to be acceptable
    • -Workers gets 3 times average minimum wage and benefits (free house, health care, clean water, primary schools)
    • -Paid by the pound
    • -Sustainably certified teas, as checked by the government
    • -Companies trying to sell agricultural products in a way that does less harm (sustainable) but some are also addressing all of the need of their workers (housing, wages, health, etc.)
    • -If foreign company isn’t being bad it can be beneficial to country
  22. Aquaculture
    • -farming of aquatic plants and animals in an artificial environment
    • -many wetlands are used for this
  23. Aquaculture: Top producers
    • 1. China
    • 2. India
    • 3. Philippines
    • 4. Indonesia
    • 5. Japan
    • 6. Vietnam
    • 7. Thailand
    • 8. Korea
    • 9. Bangladesh
    • 10. Chile
  24. Aquaculture: China
    • -Although aquaculture is relatively new across the world, China has been doing it for a while
    • -First country to start farming fish, 1000 years ago
  25. Aquaculture: Popular fish
    • -Atlantic fish – produce a lot of algae, farmed in southern and northern hemisphere (Norway, Chile, UK, Canada)
    • -Marine shrimp – located all over the world, easy to grow in every type of coast, ponds filed with salt water, only takes 90-120 days to harvest, problem is that they are so easy to grow thus lots of wetland areas are being converted into shrimp farms (China, Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, India)44% of marine shrimp consumed was farmed
    • -Tilapia – native to Africa but now grown all over the world (Chile, Ecuador, Indonesia), popular due to bright colors, not able to survive in winter water temperatures (USA raises them inside), very easy to grow
  26. Bollywood Video
    • -Life in cities in India worse than the ones lived in farms
    • -India will soon surpass China in population
    • -70% of India’s people are rural
    • -Farmers move to cities in search for new life but more food is going to be needed in the future, who will produce it
    • -Government policies have encouraged farming practices that do not encourage conservation of resources (electricity, water, etc.)
    • -Rice and wheat could collapse in 10 years
    • -Government efforts are trying to be introduced to conserve soilsNew tools, change farming schedule, less chemicals
    • -“Hardly cleaning the pest so can’t be too harmful to me
    • -”Climate change could add further stresses
    • -Before government, farm workers and
    • -Big farmers vs. rural farmers (80% of the people)
  27. Reason why food was genetically modified
    was not for evil but because they would be easier to grow in developing nations and also be more nutritious
  28. Key to growing genetically modified foods
    • -need to follow instructions
    • -Do not grow the crop year after year (take brakes in-between)So that resistance is not built up, more water won’t be required, not rotating crops
    • -Plants were designed so they would fit in with conditions of particular countries
    • -People grew too much because they needed more or stopped growing because they grew too much thus not following the instructions