Ch1: Amino Acids

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  1. Polar AA's (☗) cluster on
    The surface of soluble proteins
  2. Nonpolar AA's (O) cluster on
    • The surface of membrane proteins, and interior of soluble proteins.
    • Called Hydrophobic
    • in lipid environment
  3. Slide 10: Proline has a +H2N Amino group attached to left.
    ⇒Alanine has a ___________ amino group attached.
  4. Slide 11: Tyrosine has which bond between it's hydroxyl group and another molecule containing carbonyl group?
    Hydrogen Bond
  5. L-Alanine cells are in
  6. D-Alanine type of cell is in
    • in bacteria cells
    • found in antibiotics, and plant cells
  7. Cells that are mirror images of each other
    • D & L forms of Alanine.
    • L-Al has (H3N)
    • D-Al has (NH3)
  8. PH lower than 7 is
  9. PH greater than 7 is
  10. Deprotonation
    • »Losing proton, losing H.
    • »When PH increases; H is lost; Carboxilic group loses 1st.
  11. Buffer zone is calculated as
    Pka +/- 1

    EX: 4.8 +/- = 3.8 to 5.8
  12. Calculate Buffer zone and PI with 2 buffer zones given as pK1=2.3, and pK2=9.1
    pK1+pK2 / 2

    2.3+9.1=11.4 /2=5.7

    Buff zone 1:  2.3 -+ 1= 1.3 to 3.3

    Buff zone 2: 8.1 to 10.1


    • ⇰Take # before neutral for pK1
    • ⇰Take # after neautral for pK2
    • More practice on slides 26-28
  13. Buffering zone
    pKa +- 1
  14. AA titration: PI>PH
    overall charge is (+)
  15. AA titration: PI<PH
    The overall charge is (-)
  16. AA titration: PH=PI
    The overall charge is (0)
  17. Increase in bicarb ion cause ph to
  18. Pulmonary obstruction causes increase in _____ and decrease in _______
    increase CO2 carbon dioxide.

    Decrease in pH
  19. Stomach has a pH of 1.5, aspirin has a pH of 3.5 (weak acid); therefore, it will be protonated (COOH) and thus ________
  20. Uncharged drugs cross membranes more _______ than charged molecules.
  21. Morphine is uncharged, usually passes through cell membrane more ______ than charged form.
  22. Class Notes: Ionized or charged form of drugs which are weak acid or weak base can't cross the biological cell membrane due to the.
    Non polar Lipid bi-layer.
  23. 2 buffering systems
    • 1. Hemoglobin
    • 2. Bicarbonate system
  24. Good PH is between
    7.37 and 7.43
  25. Respiratory Acidosis
    • caused by hypoventilation, low Resp Rate.
    • increased CO2
    • Increased H2CO3
    • In Airway obstruction
    • In neuromuscular disorders
    • In central nervous system disorder
  26. Respiratory Alkalosis
    • Caused by hyperventilation, INC Resp Rate.
    • Excessive elimination of CO2
    • DEC. CO2 and pH is INC.
    • DEC. H2CO3
    • In anxiety
    • In Salicylate poisoning
    • in fever
    • In High altitude (dec. atmosphere pressure, and alveolar PCO2)
  27. Metabolic Acidosis
    • INC. H2CO3 and H2O.
    • inc CO2
    • Acid accumulation in blood, Low pH, Dec. Bicarbonate.
    • Equilibrium shift toward carbonic acid
    • Carbonic anhydrase converts to CO2 and water then co2 is exhaled.
    • In Dehydration
    • In Diabetes
    • In Meds taken
    • In excess lactic acid
    • In acetoacetic acid, B-hydro acid
    • In ingestion of salicylates, ethylene glycol, methyl alcohol
  28. Metabolic Alkalosis
    • DEC H2CO3 and H2O
    • Normal CO2
    • Inc. pH
    • accumulation of bicarbonate in blood
    • Protons lost from blood
    • carbon equil. with CO2 shifts toward carbonic acid
    • carbonic acid converts to bicarbonate and restores protons.
    • As a result there is accumulation of bicarbonate in blood
    • In increased diuretics
    • In loss of chloride ions from vomiting
    • In giving to much sodium bicarbonate
  29. pH 7.35-7.45   bicarbonate/carbonic acid ratio is 20:1 (usual)
    Normal pH
  30. Low pH, bicarb to carbonic acid ratio 20:4
    (more carbonic)
    Respiratory Acidosis
  31. Low pH, Bicarbonate to carbonic acid is 15:1 (Lowered bicarbonate)
    Metabolic acidosis
  32. pg12 #1.2: Cysteine is able to form ____________ bond
    Disulfide (-S-S-)
  33. Pg 12 #1.3: Gly has PI of 6.1 and pH2. which electrode will Gly move in electric field, neg or pos?
    • PI>pH so Gly is +.
    • It will move toward neg electrode.
  34. pg1. Each amino acid has (except for proline which has secondary amino group)
    • 1. carboxyl group
    • 2. primary amino group
    • 3. a side chain "R group" bonded to alpha carbon atom
  35. Pg5: amino acids with acidic side chains
    Aspartate and glutamate; they are negative charged.
  36. Pg 5: AA with basic side chains
    Lysine and Arginine. Also Histidine (weak basic) depending on environment.
  37. pg 6: proton acceptor
  38. proton donors

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Ch1: Amino Acids
2013-09-26 15:49:26
Amino Acid

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