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Polar AA's (☗) cluster on
The surface of soluble proteins
Nonpolar AA's (O) cluster on
- The surface of membrane proteins, and interior of soluble proteins.
- Called Hydrophobic
- in lipid environment
Slide 10: Proline has a +H2N Amino group attached to left.
⇒Alanine has a ___________ amino group attached.
Slide 11: Tyrosine has which bond between it's hydroxyl group and another molecule containing carbonyl group?
L-Alanine cells are in
D-Alanine type of cell is in
- in bacteria cells
- found in antibiotics, and plant cells
Cells that are mirror images of each other
- D & L forms of Alanine.
- L-Al has (H3N)
- D-Al has (NH3)
PH lower than 7 is
PH greater than 7 is
- »Losing proton, losing H.
- »When PH increases; H is lost; Carboxilic group loses 1st.
Buffer zone is calculated as
Pka +/- 1
EX: 4.8 +/- = 3.8 to 5.8
Calculate Buffer zone and PI with 2 buffer zones given as pK1=2.3, and pK2=9.1
Buff zone 1: 2.3 -+ 1= 1.3 to 3.3
Buff zone 2: 8.1 to 10.1
More practice on slides 26-28
- ⇰Take # before neutral for pK1
- ⇰Take # after neautral for pK2
AA titration: PI>PH
overall charge is (+)
AA titration: PI<PH
The overall charge is (-)
AA titration: PH=PI
The overall charge is (0)
Increase in bicarb ion cause ph to
Pulmonary obstruction causes increase in _____ and decrease in _______
increase CO2 carbon dioxide.
Decrease in pH
Stomach has a pH of 1.5, aspirin has a pH of 3.5 (weak acid); therefore, it will be protonated (COOH) and thus ________
Uncharged drugs cross membranes more _______ than charged molecules.
Morphine is uncharged, usually passes through cell membrane more ______ than charged form.
Class Notes: Ionized or charged form of drugs which are weak acid or weak base can't cross the biological cell membrane due to the.
Non polar Lipid bi-layer.
2 buffering systems
- 1. Hemoglobin
- 2. Bicarbonate system
Good PH is between
7.37 and 7.43
- caused by hypoventilation, low Resp Rate.
- increased CO2
- Increased H2CO3
- In Airway obstruction
- In neuromuscular disorders
- In central nervous system disorder
- Caused by hyperventilation, INC Resp Rate.
- Excessive elimination of CO2
- DEC. CO2 and pH is INC.
- DEC. H2CO3
- In anxiety
- In Salicylate poisoning
- in fever
- In High altitude (dec. atmosphere pressure, and alveolar PCO2)
- INC. H2CO3 and H2O. inc CO2
- Acid accumulation in blood, Low pH, Dec. Bicarbonate.
- Equilibrium shift toward carbonic acid
- Carbonic anhydrase converts to CO2 and water then co2 is exhaled.
- In Dehydration
- In Diabetes
- In Meds taken
- In excess lactic acid
- In acetoacetic acid, B-hydro acid
- In ingestion of salicylates, ethylene glycol, methyl alcohol
- DEC H2CO3 and H2ONormal CO2
- Inc. pH
- accumulation of bicarbonate in blood
- Protons lost from blood
- carbon equil. with CO2 shifts toward carbonic acid
- carbonic acid converts to bicarbonate and restores protons.
- As a result there is accumulation of bicarbonate in blood
- In increased diuretics
- In loss of chloride ions from vomiting
- In giving to much sodium bicarbonate
pH 7.35-7.45 bicarbonate/carbonic acid ratio is 20:1 (usual)
Low pH, bicarb to carbonic acid ratio 20:4
Low pH, Bicarbonate to carbonic acid is 15:1 (Lowered bicarbonate)
pg12 #1.2: Cysteine is able to form ____________ bond
Pg 12 #1.3: Gly has PI of 6.1 and pH2. which electrode will Gly move in electric field, neg or pos?
- PI>pH so Gly is +.
- It will move toward neg electrode.
pg1. Each amino acid has (except for proline which has secondary amino group)
- 1. carboxyl group
- 2. primary amino group
- 3. a side chain "R group" bonded to alpha carbon atom
Pg5: amino acids with acidic side chains
Aspartate and glutamate; they are negative charged.
Pg 5: AA with basic side chains
Lysine and Arginine. Also Histidine (weak basic) depending on environment.
pg 6: proton acceptor