Stress and Physiological arousal - Altered states

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  1. Sress (4)
    • harmful physical or emotional arousal and responses that occur when faced with threatening events
    • threatening events called stressors
    • can be negative - death/job loss
    • can be positive - new relationship/skydiving
  2. Autonomic nervous system (3)
    • responsible for adjusting our needs for different levels of arousal
    • sympathetic nervous system
    • parasympathetic nervous system
  3. Sympathetic nervous system (3)
    • responds to stress
    • flight or fight
    • speeds up body's functioning (HR. blood pressure etc)
  4. Parasympathetic nervous system (3)
    • important for slowing down body's funtioning
    • responsible for maintenance of body's energy
    • important to balance sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems to maintain healthy functioning
  5. Arousal and task performance (6)
    • stress can help/hinder performance
    • usually optimum performance is achieved with medium levels of arousal
    • stimulants can raise arousal levels (coffee)
    • depresants can lower arousal levels (alcohol)
    • psychological factors can also raise arousal levels (anger, anxiety, motivation)
    • relaxation and confidence can lower arousal levels
  6. Yerkes-dodsons low
    • complex tasks - low arousal is optimal
    • simple/learnt tasks - medium to higher level of arousal for optimal performance
  7. Stress and health (4)
    • physiological processes to cope with stress are adaptive
    • long term stress can be very harmful
    • physical - cardiovascular disease and hypertension
    • psychological - depression, anxiety, PTSD
  8. Major life events (4)
    • reported to be stressful
    • applies with pos and neg events
    • No. of major events seems to relate to development of illness, including influenza and cardiovascular disease.
    • eg marriage divorce children
  9. Post traumatic stress disease (7)
    • develops after intense distressing event
    • beyond 'normal' life expectations
    • eg war, robbery, death w/road accidents
    • symptoms:
    • intrusive recollections
    • dreams
    • sensitivity to stimuli associated w/ event
    • avoid reminding activities
  10. Work stress effects (5)
    • physiological: increased blood pressure
    • Psychological: anxiety, depression, anger and agression
    • Behavioral: smoking/alcohol
    • coping well = baseline arousal level
    • not coping well = elevated baseline arousal
  11. Work stress: demand-control support model (4)
    • draws more from structural and/or organisational aspects of work environment for the reason of stress
    • more so than personal attributes
    • social support at work is very beneficial
    • reduces risk of mental and or physical harm due to stress
  12. Person environment fit model (3)
    • 1 individual's skills and abilities match demands of job
    • 2 personal needs are supplied by the job environment

    if misfit is present for either, health effects may occur.
  13. Why is flying westward easier?
    Because it is more difficult to adapt to phase advances than phase delays
  14. define circadian rhythms
    circadian rhythm is a biological cycle lasting 24 hours
  15. How does infants' sleep differ? (2)
    • 50% of sleep in REM
    • duration of sleep is longe (13-16 hours)
  16. Alert/awake persons brain waves?
    beta waves - high frequency and low amplitude
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Stress and Physiological arousal - Altered states
2013-09-25 08:06:26

Stress and arousal affects
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