TAP TEST READING COMPREHENSION

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shockwave
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TAP TEST READING COMPREHENSION
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2014-01-11 21:34:28
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TAP TEST READING COMPREHENSION
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  1. DEFINE HYPERBOLE
    OVERSTATEMENT FOR EFFECT.

    EX: HE JUMPED 10-0 IN THE AIR.
  2. DEFINE ALLITERATION 
    • ALLITERATION IS THE REPETITION OF INITIAL SOUNDS IN A SERIES OF WORDS.
    • USED TO DRAW ATTENTION.
    • EX: THUNDERING THROUGH THE THICKETS. NOTICE “TH”.
  3. DEFINE ASSONANCE
    • REPITION OF VOWEL SOUNDS IN A PHRASE
    • EX: LOW AND SLOW, HE ROLLED THE COAL.
  4. ALLITERATION AND ASSONANCE.  
    HOW ARE THEY ALIKE?
    HOW ARE THEY DIFFERENT?
    • ALIKE: UTILIZE SOUNDS TO CONVEY A POINT.
    • DIFFERENCES:
    • ALLITERATION IS REPETITION OF INITIAL SOUNDS IN A SERIES OF WORDS.
    • ASSONANCE IS REPETITION OF VOWEL SOUNDS IN A PHRASE.
  5. UNDERSTATEMENT IS THE OPPOSITE OF __________?


    • HYPERBOLE.
    • DESCRIBES SOMETHING AS LESS THAN IT IS, CONVEY DELF-DEPRECATION OR MODESTY.
    • ALWAYS CALL ATTENTION TO ITSELF. 
  6. DEFINE IRONY
    STATEMENT THAT SUGGESTS ITS OPPOSITE.
  7. THERE IS A FINE DISTINCTION BETWEEN IRONY AND SARCASM. NAME IT.
    • IRONY IS ANY STATEMENT WHICH THE LITERAL MEANING IS OPPOSITE FROM THE INTENDED MEANING.  LESS SUBTLE THAN SARCASM.
    • SARCASM IS ALSO A STATEMENT OF THIS TYPE, BUT MEANT TO INSULT THE PERSON AT WHOM IT IS DIRECTED TOWARDS. 
  8. DEFINE METONYMY
    • REFERRING TO ONE THING IN TERMS OF ANOTHER, CLOSELY RELATED THING. SIMILAR TO A METAPHOR, BUT THERE IS LESS DISTANCE BETWEEN THE DESCRIPTION AND THE THING BEING DESCRIBED.
    • IT’S A WAY OF REFERRING TO SOMETHING WITHOUT REPEATING ITS NAME CONSTANTLY.
    • EX: THE MEDIA AS “THE PRESS”.
  9. DEFINE SYNECDOCHE.

    • syn·ec·do·che  
    • A figure of speech in which a part is used for the whole (as hand for sailor), the whole for a part (as the law for police officer), the specific for the general (as cutthroat for assassin), the general for the specific (as thief for pickpocket), or the material for the thing made from it (as steel for sword).
  10. Cause and effect relationships are often found what types of
    literature?
    • Stories (Narratives) and Persuasive essays.
    • In a story, the unfolding of the plot is typically a series of causes and effects.
    • EX: Wizard of Oz.  
  11. ____________________ EXISTS WHEN ONE OR MORE EVENTS RESULTS FROM A PARTICULAR SET OF CIRCUMSTANCES OR OCCURANCES. 
    CAUSE-AND-EFFECT RELATIONSHIP
  12. NAME A FEW WAYS TO IDENTIFY A CAUSE-AND-EFFECT RELATIONSHIP IN A TEXT. 
    AUTHOR USES WORDS LIKE BECAUSE, SINCE, IN ORDER, AND SO. ALSO ASK WHY AND WHAT WAS THE RESULT. 
  13. CONSIDER THE SENTENCE “HE CALLED HER BECAUSE HE NEEDED THE HOMEWORK.”

    WHAT IS THE CAUSE? WHAT IS THE EFFECT?
    • THIS IS A SIMPLE CAUSAL RELATIONSHIP. CAUSE IS THE NEED FOR HOMEWORK. EFFECT PHONE CALL.
    • BY DEFINITION, CAUSE MUST PRECEDE THE EFFECT. 
  14. ANALYSIS OF THE SIMILARITIES BETWEEN IDEAS IS CALLED ______________.
    COMPARISON. 
  15. IN ORDER FOR COMPARISION TO WORK….
    THE AUTHOR MUST PLACE IDEAS OR THINGS IN EQUIVALENT STRUCTURE.  MUST PRESENT IDEAS THE SAME WAY. 
  16. THE ANALYSIS OF OPPOSING IDEAS IS KNOWN AS _______.
    CONTRAST. DO IT FAIR AND BE EQUAL TO BOTH IDEAS. PRESENT EACH IDEA IN THE SAME MANOR. 
  17. IN AN OUTLINE, WHAT GOES BY THE ROMAN NUMERALS?
    MAIN IDEAS 
  18. ON A GRAPH, WHAT DO THE X AND Y AXIS USUALLY REPRESENT?
    • X AXIS INDEPENDENT VARIABLE.  
    • THE INDEPENDENT VARIABLE IS THE ONE MANUPULATED BY THE RESEARCHER OR WHOEVER PUT THE GRAPH TOGTHER.
    • Y AXIS DEPENDANT VARIABLE.  THE DEPENDANT VARIABLE IS NOT CONTROLLED BY THE RESEARCHER. 
  19. DEFINE LITERARY GENRE
    • A METHOD OF CLASSIFYING AND ANALYZING LITERATURE.
    • GENRES OFTEN OVERLAP. 
  20. NAME 3 CATEGORIES OF PROSE FICTION.
    • SHORT STORIES
    • NOVELS. LONGER THAN STORES. EMPHASIS MAY BE ON EVENT, ACTION, PROBLEM OR EXPERIENCE.
    •  NOVELLAS.  LONGER THAN A STORY, BUT SHORTER THAN A NOVEL. ALSO KNOWN AS SHORT NOVELS. GERMAN IN ORGIN.
  21. DEFINE ANALOGY
    • COMPARISON OF TWO THINGS. COMMON RELATIONSHIPS FOR ANALOGIES INCLUDE SYNONYMS, ANTONYMS, PARTS TO WHOLE, DEFINITION AND ACTOR TO ACTIONS.
    • EX: MOO IS TO COW AS QUACK IS TO DUCK.
  22. THESAURUS IS A REFERENCE BOOK THAT GIVES THE ____________ OF WORDS. 
    • SYNONYMS.
    • NO DEFINITIONS.
  23. THE _______ MEANING OF A WORD IS THE LITERAL MEANING.

    DENOTATIVE. 
  24. THE ___________ MEANING OF A WORD GOES BEYOND THE DENOTATIVE MEANING TO INCLUDE THE EMOTIONAL REACTION A WORD MAY INVOKE.

    CONNOTATIVE
  25. MOST NON-FICTION IS FACT BASED.
    WOULD YOU FIND MORE
    DENOTATIVE OR CONNOTATIVE WORD UTILIZATION?
    • DENOTATIVE. MORE LITERAL.
    • (CONNOTATIVE IS MORE SYMBOLIC OR USE TO EXPLAIN OR INVOKE EMOTIONS) 
  26. IN AN OUTLINE WHAT GOES BY A,B,C,D? UNDER ROMAN NUMERALS?
    • THE SUPPORTING IDEAS.
    • ROMAN NUMBERALS ARE GENERAL IDEAS. 
  27. DEFINE PROSE FICTION.
    PROSE FICTION IS AN IMAGINARY STORY, USUALLY WRITTEN, THAT SOMEONE TELLS IN EVERYDAY, NATURAL LANGUAGE.

    •  3 TYPES SHORT STORY, NOVEL AND NOVELLA
    • Prose is a form of language which applies ordinary grammatical structure and natural flow of speech rather than rhythmic structure (as in traditional poetry).
  28. PLURAL NOUNS.. WHEN DO YOU USE "ES"?
    Singular nouns ending in 's,' 'ss,' 'sh,' 'ch,' 'x,' or 'z' need an 'es' at the end to become plural
  29. WHAT IS THE PLURAL FORM OF EDITOR-IN-CHIEF?
    EDITORS-IN-CHIEF.

    A hyphenated compound noun requires that you make the first, major noun plural.
  30. To show joint possession, add an apostrophe and an s to the end of the _____ noun.
    To show joint possession, add an apostrophe and an s to the end of the last noun. 

    So, you would refer to Jack and Juanita's car or Keisha and Jane's bedroom.
  31. TO MAKE A A SINGULAR NOUN POSSESSIVE THAT ENDS IN S,X OR Z WHAT DO YOU DO?
    JUST ADD 'S 
  32. TO MAKE A PLURAL NOUN THAT DOES NOT END IN S POSSESSIVE WHAT DO YOU DO?
    JUST ADD 'S
  33. The government offers benefits for many of _______ citizens.
    THERE
    WE
    THEIR
    ITS
    THE
    ITS
  34. The government _______ a website with tax-filing instructions.
    HAVE PROVIDED
    WILL HAVE PROVIDES
    PROVIDE
    HAVE PROVIDES
    PROVIDES
    PROVIDES. 

    REMEMBER THAT COLLECTIVE NOUNS ACT AS SINGULAR. THEY GET SINGULAR VERBS.
  35. An _________ is the word that a pronoun takes the place of or refers to.
    An antecedent is the word that a pronoun takes the place of or refers to. 

    For example, if I were to say that The teacher gathered her books, the pronoun in that sentence would be her, and the antecedent to which it refers would be teacher.
  36. Collective nouns, just like any other nouns, can be__________ in sentences, and that means that they must be paired with pronouns.
    antecedents
  37. WHAT IS THE EXCEPTION WHEN USING COLLECTIVE NOUNS AS ANTECEDENTS?
    When you use a collective noun antecedent to refer to the members of a group as separate individuals, use a plural pronoun in that sentence.

    EX: The team are putting on their helmets right now., we correctly used a plural pronoun, their, to refer back to the collective noun team.

    • THEIR IS PLURAL. 
    • ITS IS SINGULAR.
  38. a ________ is a word that expresses an action or occurrence.
    VERB
  39. One type of verb form is the ___________, which consists of the word 'to' plus the base form of a verb.
    infinitive.
  40. WHAT IS A INFINITIVE VERB.
    consists of the word 'to' plus the base form of a verb.
  41. 'to get up early tomorrow' OR 
     'to get a new job.'

    WHAT TYPE PF PHRASES ARE THESE?
    infinitive (VERB)  phrase.
  42. TO RUN
    TO GO 
    TO BE
    TO DRIVE 

    ALL OF THESE ARE WHAT ?
    Infinitive.  Which consists of the word 'to' plus the base form of a verb.
  43. HOW WOULD YOU MAKE A SINGULAR NOUN POSSESSIVE IF IT ENDS IN S,Z OR X?

    The kindergarten class recital
    Dr. Mendez lecture 
    Ms. Delacroix car
    JUST ADD " 'S ".

    • The kindergarten class's recital
    • Dr. Mendez's lecture 
    • Ms. Delacroix's car
  44. T OR F 
    Verbs that end in s are often singular, even though plural nouns usually end in s.
    TRUE

    • One woman hires people. 
    • Two women hire people. 
    • The first sentence has a singular noun and singular verb, and the second has a plural noun and plural verb.
  45. T OR F 
    When you refer to the members of a collective group as separate individuals, use a plural verb in that sentence.
    EX: The team are putting on their helmets right now.
    • TRUE 
    • By virtue of what's being talked about in this sentence, we're talking about the team members as separate individuals, so it makes sense here to use a plural verb with the collective noun team.
  46. DEFINE antecedent
    antecedent is the word that a pronoun takes the place of or refers to.
  47. Collective nouns are singular, so when they are used as_______ they must be paired with singular pronouns.
    antecedents.

    An antecedent is the word that a pronoun takes the place of or refers to.
  48. YOU KNOW THE 3 PROSE FICTION TYPES, WHAT ARE THE 4 NON-PROSE FICTION TYPES?
    • SONGS
    • BALLADS
    • EPICS
    • NARRATIVE POEMS
  49. T OR F 
    FICTION IS MUCH WIDER THAN SIMPLE PROSE FICTION.
    TRUE
  50. T OR F 
    A FULL DEFINITION OF FICTION MUST ALSO INCLUDE NOT ONLY THE WORK ITSELF, BUT ALSO THE FRAMEWORK IN WHICH IT IS READ.
    TRUE
  51. _______ A LONG WORK OF FICTION AND OFTEN CONTAINS A LARGE CAST OF CHARACTERS. EMPHASIS MAY BE AN EVENT, ACTIOB OR SOCIAL PROBLEMS OR AN EXPERIENCE.
    NOVELS.
  52. ____ FICTIONAL NARRATIVE, THE LENGTH OF WHICH VARIES, USUALLY UNDER 20,000 WORDS. FEW CHARACTERS AND GENERAL DESCRIBES ONE EVENT OR INSIGHT. BEGAN IN MAGAZINES IN 1800'S.
    SHORT STORIES
  53. T OR F 
    NOVELS MAY ALSO BE WRITTEN IN VERSE.
    TRUE
  54. WHAT IS LONGER THAN A SHORT STORY BUT SHORTER THAN A NOVEL.
    NOVEL
  55. DEFINE ANALOGY
    COMPARISON OF TWO THINGS. THE WORDS IN AN ANALOGY ARE CONNECTED BY AS CERTAIN RELATIONSHIP.

    EX: MOO IS TO COW AS QUACK IS TO DUCK.

    SOME COMMON RELATIONSHIPS FOR ANALOGIES INCLUDE SYNONYMS, ANTONYMS, PART TO WHOLE, DEFINITIONS, AND ACTOR TO ACTION.
  56. DEFINE A "SLIPPERY SLOPE" LOGICAL FALLACY
    WHEN THE AUTHOR SAYS THAT IF SOMETHING HAPPENS, IT AUTOMATICALLY MEANS THAT SOMETHING ELSE WILL HAPPEN AS A RESULT, EVEN THOUGHT THIS MAY NOT BE TRUE.
  57. DEFINE A "HASTY GENERALIZATIONS" LOGICAL FALLACY.
    DRAWING A CONCLUSION TOO EARLY, WITHOUT FINISHING THE ANALYZING OF THE DETAILS OF THE ARGUMENT.
  58. T OR F 
    FACTS ARE ACCURATE UNTIL PROVEN OTHERWISE.
    TRUE
  59. NAME THE 6 PARTS OF A PLOT LINE DIAGRAM FOR A STORY.
  60. IN A PLOT LINE DIAGRAM, DOES CONFLICT COME BEFORE CLIMAX?
    • YES 
  61. THE STUDY OF SPEECH DIFFERENCES FROM ONE GEOGRAPHICAL AREA TO ANOTHER IS KNOWN AS WHAT?
    DIALECT GEOGRAPHY
  62. How to Analyze a Literary Passage?

    Name the 3 basic steps
    • Comprehension
    • Interpretation
    • Draw conclusion
  63. WHEN YOU ANALYZE A STORY YOU HAVE 3 PARTS. NAME THEM AND ALL THE SUB-UNITS.
    • COMPREHENSION
    • Setting Comprehension
    • Character Comprehension
    • Plot Comprehension

    • INTERPRETATION
    • (a further exploration of the stated and implied aspects of):
    • Setting Analysis
    • Character Analysis
    • Plot Analysis
    • Author Style and Language Analysis (Remember those literary devices!)

    • DRAWING CONCLUSIONS
    • Bringing everything together to support a greater theme, message, or moral about life.
  64. WHAT ARE THE FOUR STEP OF FINDING THE GIST OF A PIECE?
    • 1. WHAT'S THE POINT?
    • 2. FORESHADOWING. WHERE IS IT GOING?
    • 3. IN YOUR OWN WORDS EXPLAIN IT.
    • 4. CRITIQUE AND EVALUATION. WHERE THEY SUCCESSFUL OR CONCISE IN STATING MESSAGE?
  65. What is a Thematic Statement
    A Thematic Statement explains WHY characters act as they do.

    A Thematic Statement refines the broad idea to address your Story Question. In doing so,  the Thematic Statement guides your characters in every choice they make and helps you, the writer, by providing a moral framework.
  66. DEFINE MOTIFS
    • Reoccurring ideas and objects used throughout a work that can contribute to minor and major themes.
    • Through their repetition and placement, motifs can contribute to an author's thematic statement.
  67. DEFINE THERMATIC STATEMENT
    What the author is trying to say about their subject through their choice of major and minor themes and how writers use those themes to deliver a message.
  68. IF A WRITE REFERENCES " MY SORROW" AND CALLS IT A "SHE", THIS IS AN EXAMPLE OF WHAT?
    PERSONIFICATION.
  69. How to Evaluate Reasoning.
    NAME THE STEPS
    • 1. IDENTIFY THE CONCLUSION
    • 2. IDENTIFY THE PREMISE.
    • 3. IDENTIFY ANY IMPLIES OR UNSTATED PREMISE.
    • 4. EVALUATE WHETHER THE PREMISE PROVIDES REASONABLE SUPPORT FOR THE CONCLUSION.
    • A. Inductive validity asks us to come up with a reasonable answer from the premise given and evaluate if this is in line with our conclusion. Thus it is improbable for a premise to be true and the conclusion to be false. However, it is possible, just unlikely, that with the true premise the conclusion is false. 
    • B. Deductive validity states that it is impossible for the conclusion to be true if the premise is false. Thus, if the premise cannot stand on its own, the conclusion has no chance of being true.
    • 5. evaluate if the premise is true or false.
  70. DEFINE Inductive validity
     Inductive validity asks us to come up with a reasonable answer from the premise given and evaluate if this is in line with our conclusion. Put another way, it is improbable for a premise to be true and the conclusion to be false.
  71. __________ ________ asks us to come up with a reasonable answer from the premise given and evaluate if this is in line with our conclusion. Put another way, it is improbable for a premise to be true and the conclusion to be false.
     Inductive  validity asks us to come up with a reasonable answer from the premise given and evaluate if this is in line with our conclusion. Put another way, it is improbable for a premise to be true and the conclusion to be false.
  72. DEFINE Deductive validity
    Deductive validity  states that it is impossible for the conclusion to be true if the premise is false. In other words, if the premise cannot stand on its own, the conclusion has no chance of being true.
  73. If the premise cannot stand on its own, the conclusion has no chance of being true.

    Deductive or inductive validity?
    Deductive validity
  74. What are the two types of premises an argument can have?
    Stated and implied.
  75. What is deductive validity?
    It is impossible for the conclusion to be true if the premise is false.
  76. What is the first step in evaluating reasoning in an essay or article?
    Identify the conclusion.
  77. If the premise is untrue, what does that mean for the conclusion?
    The conclusion must be rejected.
  78. Evaluating Reasoning in an Essay or Article.
    NAME THE 2 WAYS
    Deductive reasoning entails starting with a generalization and moving to specific details. 

    Inductive reasoning starting with specific details and moving to a larger concluding point or generalization.
  79. ________ _________ which involves starting with specific details and moving to a larger concluding point or generalization.
    Inductive reasoning
  80. ___________ ________ entails starting with a generalization and moving to specific details.
    Deductive reasoning
  81. As you evaluate the effectiveness of a piece of deductive reasoning, you should first look for.....
    a clearly expressed main point
  82. Inductive reasoning involves......
    starting with specific details and moving to a larger concluding point or generalization.
  83. I always vote for the National Party candidate in gubernatorial elections. This year, Sally Smith is the National Party candidate for governor. I will vote for Sally Smith for governor this year.
    Which type of reasoning is displayed in this paragraph?
    deductive reasoning
  84. Deductive reasoning involves
    starting with a generalization and moving to specific details.

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