SOC 200 Chapter 1
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SOC 200 Chapter 1
SOC 200 03
a way of taking a sociological approach or thinking sociologically about the world
what is sociology
one of the social sciences
disciplines that examine the human or social world
aka the study of society
according to howard becker, sociology is...
the study of people doing things together because neither the individual nor society exist independently of one another
sociology looks at a broad range of institutions, which are?
structures in society like education, economics, and politics to better understand social relationships
a quality of the mind that allows us to understand the relationship between our particular situation in life and what is happening at a social level
interested in all aspects of society
a group of people who shape their lives in patterned ways that distinguish their group from other groups
happens when you experience a sense of disorientation upon entering a new environment
behaviors that seem ____ in one society of culture may seen ___ ____ in another context
to explore the social world we must clear our minds of stereotypes, expectations and opinions so that we are more receptive to our experiences
whose idea was the beginners mind?
examines small group interactions to see how they impact larger institutions in society
examines large scale social structures to determine how they impact groups and individuals
who coined the term sociological imagination?
C. Wright mills
who said,"To understand social life, we must understand the intersection between biography and history"?
what did auguste comte state?
that sociology needed to be treated like any other scientific discipline
who laid the groundwork for future sociologists and helped build the discipline
propositions that explain the social world and help to make predictions about future events
what are theories also referred to as?
schools of thought
social activist who traveled the US and wrote about social changes that were radical for that time period
what did Martineau do?
she translated comte's work into English, making his ideas accessible to England and america
who was the first great English speaking sociologist?
who coined the term "survival of the fittest"?
herbert spencer's philosophy?
what did herbert spencer believe?
societies evolve through time by adapting to their changing environment
what did emile Durkheim do
she worked to establish sociology as an important academic discipline
who studied the correlation between social isolation and suicide?
what was Durkheim interested in?
the social factors that bond and hold people together
a german philosopher and political activist
what did marx contribute?
sociology's conflict theory
the unequal distribution of wealth, power, or prestige among members of a society
what did marx believe?
that capitalism was creating social inequality between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat
the class of modern capitalists who own the means of production and employ wage laborers
means of production?
money, factories, natural resources and land
according to marx, inequality leads to?
generated by the competition between different class groups for scarce resources and the source of all social change according to Marx
what was max weber concerned with?
applying economic logic to all human activity
the result of the dehumanizing features of modern societies
what was George herbert mead interested in?
connection between thought and action, and between the individual and society
what did mead suggest?
the meanings that we give to objects in our society are social processes
people interact and meanings come from these intereactions
erving goffman was interested in?
how the "self" is developed through interactions with others in society
what term did Goffman use?
describes the way people strategically present themselves to others
schools of thought
ways of thinking or theoretical umbrellas meant to provide a broad explanation for the way things work
society is viewed as an ordered system of interrelated parts, or structures
the social institutions that make up society (family, education, politics, the economy)
sees social conflict as the basic of society
modern school of thought
sees interaction and meaning as central to society and assumes that meanings are not inherent but rather are created through interaction
looks at both gender inequalities in society and the way that gender structures the social world and considers remedies to these inequalities
proposes that categories of sexual identity are social constructs and that no sexual category is fundamentally either deviant or normal
suggests that social reality is diverse, pluralistic and constantly changing