SOC 200 Chapter 1

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melissag94
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233792
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SOC 200 Chapter 1
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2013-09-09 14:03:32
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SOC 200 03
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sociology
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  1. sociological perspective
    a way of taking a sociological approach or thinking sociologically about the world
  2. what is sociology
    one of the social sciences
  3. sociology?
    • disciplines that examine the human or social world
    • aka the study of society
  4. according to howard becker, sociology is...
    the study of people doing things together because neither the individual nor society exist independently of one another
  5. sociology looks at a broad range of institutions, which are?
    structures in society like education, economics, and politics to better understand social relationships
  6. sociological imagination?
    a quality of the mind that allows us to understand the relationship between our particular situation in life and what is happening at a social level
  7. sociologists are?
    interested in all aspects of society
  8. society?
    a group of people who shape their lives in patterned ways that distinguish their group from other groups
  9. culture shock?
    happens when you experience a sense of disorientation upon entering a new environment
  10. behaviors that seem ____ in one society of culture may seen ___ ____ in another context
    • typical
    • very strange
  11. beginner's mind?
    to explore the social world we must clear our minds of stereotypes, expectations and opinions so that we are more receptive to our experiences
  12. whose idea was the beginners mind?
    Bernard mcgrane
  13. microsociology?
    examines small group interactions to see how they impact larger institutions in society
  14. macrosociology
    examines large scale social structures to determine how they impact groups and individuals
  15. who coined the term sociological imagination?
    C. Wright mills
  16. who said,"To understand social life, we must understand the intersection between biography and history"?
    C.Wright mills
  17. what did auguste comte state?
    that sociology needed to be treated like any other scientific discipline
  18. who laid the groundwork for future sociologists and helped build the discipline
    auguste comte
  19. sociological theories?
    propositions that explain the social world and help to make predictions about future events
  20. what are theories also referred to as?
    • approaches
    • schools of thought
    • paradigms
    • perspectives
  21. harriet Martineau?
    social activist who traveled the US and wrote about social changes that were radical for that time period
  22. what did Martineau do?
    she translated comte's work into English, making his ideas accessible to England and america
  23. who was the first great English speaking sociologist?
    Herbert spencer
  24. who coined the term "survival of the fittest"?
    herbert spencer
  25. herbert spencer's philosophy?
    social darwinism
  26. what did herbert spencer believe?
    societies evolve through time by adapting to their changing environment
  27. what did emile Durkheim do
    she worked to establish sociology as an important academic discipline
  28. who studied the correlation between social isolation and suicide?
    emile durkheim
  29. what was Durkheim interested in?
    the social factors that bond and hold people together
  30. Karl marx?
    a german philosopher and political activist
  31. what did marx contribute?
    sociology's conflict theory
  32. social inequality
    the unequal distribution of wealth, power, or prestige among members of a society
  33. what did marx believe?
    that capitalism was creating social inequality between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat
  34. bourgeoisie?
    • owners
    • the class of modern capitalists who own the means of production and employ wage laborers
  35. proletariat?
    workers
  36. means of production?
    money, factories, natural resources and land
  37. according to marx, inequality leads to?
    class conflict
  38. conflict
    generated by the competition between different class groups for scarce resources and the source of all social change according to Marx
  39. what was max weber concerned with?
    • rationalization
    • disenchantment
  40. rationalization?
    applying economic logic to all human activity
  41. disenchantment
    the result of the dehumanizing features of  modern societies
  42. what was George herbert mead interested in?
    connection between thought and action, and between the individual and society
  43. what did mead suggest?
    the meanings that we give to objects in our society are social processes
  44. social processes?
    people interact and meanings come from these intereactions
  45. erving goffman was interested in?
    how the "self" is developed through interactions with others in society
  46. what term did Goffman use?
    dramaturgy
  47. dramaturgy
    describes the way people strategically present themselves to others
  48. paradigms?
    • schools of thought
    • ways of thinking or theoretical umbrellas meant to provide a broad explanation for the way things work
  49. structural functionalism
    society is viewed as an ordered system of interrelated parts, or structures
  50. structures
    the social institutions that make up society (family, education, politics, the economy)
  51. conflict theory
    • sees social conflict as the basic of society
    • modern school of thought
  52. symbolic interactionism
    sees interaction and meaning as central to society and assumes that meanings are not inherent but rather are created through interaction
  53. feminist theory
    looks at both gender inequalities in society and the way that gender structures the social world and considers remedies to these inequalities
  54. queer theory
    proposes that categories of sexual identity are social constructs and that no sexual category is fundamentally either deviant or normal
  55. postmordernist theory?
    suggests that social reality is diverse, pluralistic and constantly changing

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