Acid-Base Balance

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Author:
pachie_18
ID:
233799
Filename:
Acid-Base Balance
Updated:
2013-09-09 13:37:17
Tags:
nclex
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Description:
review
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  1. Compensating Kidneys
    • remove acid through urine
    • BICARB=hold on or excrete
    • kidneys take hours to days to do  their job
  2. Compensating Lungs
    • get rid of CO2 through respiration
    • hypoventilation=retain CO2
    • hyperventilation=eliminate CO2
    • lungs respond quickly
  3. Respiratory Acidosis
    • lung=CO2 problem
    • too much chemical in the body
    • hypoventilating
    • kidneys will compensate with bicarb and H
    • body must excrete acid
    • secrete bicarb
    • low pH
  4. Respiratory Acidosis causes
    • retain CO2
    • midabdominal incision
    • narcotics
    • sleeping pills
    • pneumothorax
    • collapsed lungs
    • pneumonia
  5. Respiratory Acidosis s/s
    • h/a, confused, sleepy
    • if not corrected-->could l/t coma
    • hypoxic (restlessness & tachycardia)
    • **restlessness think hypoxia first
  6. Respiratory Acidosis Tx
    • fix the breathing problem
    • treat pneumonia, get rid of secretions by postural drainage, percussion, DB, suctioning, fluids, elevate HOB, IS
    • encourage postop to turn, cough & DB
  7. Respiratory Alkalosis
    • lungs sick, kidneys compensate
    • kidneys secrete bicarb, retain H
    • problem:losing CO2
    • hyperventilating
    • high pH
  8. Respiratory Alkalosis causes
    • hyperventilation
    • hysterical & acute ASA overdose: client is breathing too fast & therefore removing CO2-->brown bag
  9. Respiratory Alkalosis Tx
    • do not wait for kidneys to kick in
    • breathe into a paper bag
    • may sedate client to dec respiratory rate
    • treat the cause
    • monitor ABGs
  10. Metabolic Acidosis
    • kidneys sick, lungs to compensate with CO2
    • bicarb & H problem
    • client is retaining H or do not have enough bicarb
    • low pH
    • respiratory rate will inc
  11. Metabolic Acidosis causes
    • DKA & starvation: cells are starving for glucose, so the body will break down protein & fat, produce ketones, ketones are acid.
    • RF
    • severe diarrhea
  12. Metabolic Acidosis s/s
    • depend on the cause
    • hyperkalemia: muscle twitching, muscle weakness, flaccid paralysis, arrythmias
    • inc R rate
    • K up
  13. Metabolic Acidosis tx
    • treat the cause
    • sodium bicarb IVP (buys time only)
  14. Metabolic Alkalosis
    • kidneys sick, lungs compensate with CO2
    • bicarb & H
    • client is in alkalosis so they're retaining too much bicarb & excreting H
    • high pH
  15. Metabolic Alkalosis causes
    • loss of upper GI content (NG suction/vomiting)
    • too many antacids..too much base
    • too much IV bicarb
  16. Metabolic Alkalosis s/s
    • depend on cause
    • observe LOC
    • K down
    • monitor for muscle cramps & life threatning arrythmias
  17. Metabolic Alkalosis Tx
    • fix the problem
    • replace K

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