Information systems 1

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randycapped
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233802
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Information systems 1
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2013-09-24 03:05:56
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Information systems
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  1. Father of computing
    Conceived the idea of a computer
    Charles Babbage
  2. What did the first computer concept consist of?
    • Main memory (store)
    • Arithmetical/Logical Unit (Mill) aka A.L.U
    • Mechanical
  3. Name of the first computer?
    ENIAC
  4. The first computer was built in ______ by ______.
    • 1945
    • IBM
  5. Was the ENIAC sold to the public?
    No.
  6. List some characteristics of the 1st computer
    • All electronic
    • Executed 5000 basic arithmetic operations per second
    • Programmable
    • Huge/Expensive/Unreliable
    • Companies weren't interested due to it's unreliability
  7. The first computer built for resale was called the _______. It was built in _______ by ___________.
    • UNIVAC I
    • 1951
    • Remington Rand
  8. The era of 1st generation computers was _____- ______
    1946-1960
  9. The two parts of the  CPU are the  ____ _____ and the _____ _____ ______.
    • Control Unit
    • Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU)
  10. What was the era of 2nd generation computers?
    1960-1964
  11. In 2nd generation computers what was the vacuum tube replaced by?
    The transistor.
  12. What was the era of 3rd generation computers?
    1965 - 1970
  13. In 3rd generation computers, what was the transistor replaced by?
    Integrated circuits
  14. What was the era of 4th generation computers?
    1971 - present
  15. In modern day computers, what is the significant cost for businesses?
    The software (not the hardware)
  16. Describe the relationship between cost and performance in modern computers.
    There is constantly a tremendous decrease in price and increase in performance.
  17. If the automotive industry pricing mirrored the computer industry how much would a Lexus cost today?
    2 dollars
  18. What is Moore's Law?
    The number of transistors (integrated circuits) that can be packed into a chip will double every 18 months.
  19. What will replace the silicon chip?
    Nanotechnology
  20. A communication network connects _____ ______ to one or more _______.
    • many individual
    • computers
  21. List some characteristics of the 4th generation computers.
    • Still using integrated circuits
    • Price decreasing/Performance increasing
    • Every business can afford
    • Communication Networks were developed
    • Multimedia Computers introduced
    • Data transmission is faster and faster
  22. What is a Multimedia Computer?
    Presents information in more than one medium including text, graphics, animation, video, music and voice.
  23. What is expected in the next generation of computers?
    • Smaller/more powerful/more affordable/portable
    • Silicon chip will be replaced by nanotechnology
    • Improvement in Communications (connectivity/interactivity/multimedia)
  24. The two major categories of Information Systems are _____ and ______.
    • personal
    • shared
  25. What were 3 parts of the "Computing Revolution"
    • 1. Many people per every one computer
    • 2. One person to every computer
    • 3. One person to many computers
  26. What part of the "Computer Revolution" is the United States in?
    The third (one person to many computers)
  27. What are the 5 components that interact to make up COMPUTER INFORMATION SYSTEMS
    • Hardware
    • Software
    • Data
    • Procedures
    • Trained Personnel
  28. The physical equipment used in Information Systems is the _______.
    hardware
  29. The _______ is the set of instructions that tell the computer how to perform a task. Also known as a ______.
    • software
    • program
  30. Two categories of software are _____ programs that control the computer and  _____ programs that are designed to solve particular processes.
    • systems
    • applications
  31. Procedures
    ___ are instructions for people on the use and operation of a business computer system
  32. Data
    ______ consists of raw facts and figures that can be processed into information
  33. Information
    _____ is the knowledge derived from data
  34. Good information is  ________, _______ and
    ________.
    • Pertinent
    • Accurate
    • Timely
  35. The people that operate the Computer Information System are referred to as ______ ______
    trained personnel.
  36. A computer is a ___________ machine.
    programmable
  37. A computer accepts _____ data, then ______
    this data and produces _____ data.
    • input
    • processes
    • output
  38. What are the 3 main components of a computer?
    • 1. CPU
    • 2. Input Devices
    • 3. Output Devices
  39. The ____ is where the computer performs all of it's processing and where the operations of all it's hardware components are controlled.
    CPU (Central Processing Unit)
  40. List the 5 types of computers in order of increasing cost and power.
    • 1. Microcontroller
    • 2. Microcomputer
    • 3. Workstation
    • 4. Mainframe
    • 5. Supercomputer
  41. In 1st generation computers, the power was supplied by ______ ______.
    vacuum tubes
  42. The 3 major drawbacks of 1st generation computers were that they were _____, they _____ _____ and were _______.
    • huge
    • failed often
    • expensive
  43. 1st generation computers used _______ _______ to program.
    machine language
  44. True or False. 1st generation computers WERE NOT practical for private businesses.
    True.
  45. In 2nd generation computers, how many programs could run at once?
    One
  46. 2nd generation computers were used by large companies for _______ only.
    accounting
  47. 3rd generation computers introduced the ability to _____-______.
    multi task
  48. The first ____ ________ was developed during the 3rd generation of computers.
    U.S. Network
  49. The cost of 3rd generation computers was still over a _____ _____.
    million dollars
  50. ______ sized companies could afford 3rd generation computers for needs beyond _____.
    • Medium
    • accounting
  51. 3rd generation computers were ____, more _____ than 2nd generation computers and they could ____ _____.
    • smaller
    • powerful
    • multi task
  52. Identifying data by one or more traits is called _______.
    classifying
  53. List the 4 steps of the CONTROL UNIT.
    • 1. Fetch
    • 2. Decode
    • 3. Execute
    • 4. Store
  54. Program instructions are executed in the ___________ part of the CPU.
    Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU)
  55. The _____ ______ controls the machine cycle.
    control unit
  56. The control unit directs movement of _______
    signals between memory and the ______.
    • electronic
    • CPU
  57. The _______ is the brain of the computer that follows the instructions of the computer to turn data into _______.
    • CPU
    • information
  58. Putting data into some logical order is called _____.
    sorting
  59. Performing arithmetic operations on data is called _______ .
    calculating
  60. ________ is the term used for when intermediate results are kept for later use.
    Storing.
  61. Transforming data into information is called _____.
    processing
  62. The ________ includes the CPU along with with some circuitry on a silicon chip.
    microprocessor
  63. The ______ ______ holds program instructions and data during processing.
    main memory
  64. A ______ is the unit of measurement for one machine cycle every second.
    hertz
  65. Registers are high speed storage areas that temporarily hold _______, ________, and ______ during processing.
    • instructions
    • addresses
    • data
  66. _________ are electronic data roadways through which data is transmitted withing the CPU and between the CPU and other components of the computer.
    Bus Lines
  67. All of the program instructions travel to get to the CPU via the ________ ____.
    Frontside Bus
  68. Main memory is made  from _______.
    RAM
  69. Three main descriptions of RAM
    • reusable
    • used for the main memory of the computer
    • volatile
  70. Where do computer programs need to be before they can be executed?
    main memory
  71. What are high speed storage areas that hold information during processes?
    registries
  72. What do we call the lowest form of data in a computer's memory?
    bit
  73. A gigabyte is equal to ______ _______ characters.
    one billion
  74. What are two components that determine a computer's power?
    processing speed and size of memory
  75. ______ memory is non-volatile and can be erased as well as re-programmed.
    FLASH
  76. _______ memory speeds up processing by storing instructions and data that the processor is using frequently.
    Level 3 or L3/ cache memory
  77. _______ memory is when some free hard disk space is used during processing to extend the capacity of RAM.
    Virtual
  78. ____ memory or _____ doesn't lose contents when power is turned off and is not easily reusable.
    • Read only
    • ROM
  79. _____ chips allow you to load data only once.
    PROM
  80. Programs on ROM are called _________.
    firmware
  81. The ______ memory doesn't lose contents when power is turned off, can be reprogrammed and is powered by battery.
    CMOS
  82. _____ cache or _____ cache is on the microprocessor.
    • L2
    • internal
  83. _____ cache is located in the CPU.
    L1
  84. The _______ system is used for data representation inside of memory with only the values of 0 and 1.
    binary
  85. 0 means electric current is turned _____ while 1 means electric current is turned _____.
    • off
    • on
  86. A _______ represents one character of data in memory. It also used as the basic unit of measure for main memory and secondary storage.
    byte
  87. A kilobyte is equal to ______ characters.
    1000
  88. A megabyte is equal to _______ character.
    1 million
  89. A terabyte is equal to _______ characters.
    1 trillion
  90. For character to binary conversion, _______ is used in microcomputers.
    ASCII
  91. For character to binary conversion, _______ is used in mainframe computers.
    EBCIDIC
  92. For character to binary conversion,_________ uses 2 bytes for each character and allows almost all written languages of the world to be represented using a single character set (or table).
    unicode
  93. The number one factory in determining computer speed is the ______ speed.
    CPU
  94. In Supercomputers the unit of measure for the CPU is called a _______.
    FLOP
  95. FLOP stands for ________.
    Floating point operations per second.
  96. In Mainframes and Workstations, the unit of measure for the CPU is called  _______.
    MIPS
  97. MIPS stands for _______.
    Millions of instructions per second.
  98. In microcomputers, or PCs, the unit of measure for the CPU is the ______.
    hertz
  99. True or false? FLOPS, MIPS and hertz are a complete measure of a CPU's speed.
    False, but hertz is better.
  100. ______ ______ is the amount of data (bits) that a CPU can process in a single step.
    Word Size
  101. List 2 types of instruction sets.
    • CISC
    • RISC
  102. _____ is the instruction set used in microcomputers and mainframes which used lots of instructions to complete a function.
    CISC
  103. _____ is the instruction set that is faster because it requires fewer instructions to perform a task.
    RISC
  104. ______ refers to the ability of the processor to overlap the fetching, decoding, execution and storing.
    Pipelining
  105. A _________ boosts a computer's speed by taking over from the main processor (CPU) the performance of complex and timely operations.
    co-processor (such as mpu or gpu)
  106. _________ is when CPUs alternate communications between two or more memory banks. Normally only used in workstations, mainframes or supercomputers.
    Interleaving
  107. _______ provides the CPU(s) with additional data from main memory based on the likelihood that it will be used.
    Bursting
  108. A ___________ processor has 2 or more processors  on a single piece of silicon, which allows the OS to divide work over more than one processor .
    multicore
  109. _______ is when the OS treats the multicore processor like it is separate CPUs
    Multithreading
  110. The ___________ is the main circuit board in a computer that contains the CPU and at least part of the main memory.
    motherboard
  111. ____ _____ are circuit boards that provide more memory or control input and output devices.
    Expansion cards
  112. The ____ _____ connects the CPU with expansion slots.
    expansion bus
  113. When you add additional hardware like a second hard drive you are ______ your computer.
    expanding
  114. When you change to a newer, more sophisticated version of your computer's components, such as a new microprocessor, you are _______ your computer.
    upgrading
  115. A _______ bit is a 9th bit that is used by the computer to check for errors when data is re-entered for processing.
    parity
  116. _____ _____ ____ are devices that permanently hold data and information as well as programs.
    Secondary storage hardware
  117. Things to consider when purchasing a PC
    • Speed of the CPU(s) (Hz)
    • Front Side Bus (Hz)
    • Word Size (BITs)
    • Size of the Main Memory (bytes)
    • Size and speed of the hard disk (GB)
    • Dots and speed of video display (dpi)

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