Med surg chapter 45
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Skeletal and muscular system
Considered one system because they work together to enable the body to move.
Skeleton is the framework
That supports the body and to which the voluntary muscles are attached.
Besides its role in movement, the skeleton has other functions
It protects organs and tissues from mechanical injury.
Flat and irregular bones as well as the ends of long bones contain and protect the red bone marrow
The hematopoietic (blood forming) tissue.
Bones are also a storage site for excess calcium
Which may undergo resorption (process of osteoclasts breaking down bone) from bones to maintain a normal blood calcium level.
Although the primary function of the muscular system is to move or stabilize the skeleton
The voluntary muscles collectively contribute significantly to heat production, which maintains normal body temperature.
Another important function of the muscular system
Is that it aids in returning blood from the legs thru muscular compression on the leg veins.
A living bone is covered by a fibrous connective tissue membrane called periosteum.
- Which is the anchor for tendons and ligaments as the collagen fibers of all these structures merge to form connections of great strength.
- This membrane also contains the blood vessels that enter the bone itself (most bone is highly vascular) and bone producing cells called osteoblasts that are activated to initiate repair when bone is damaged.
Bone is not a fixed tissue, even when growth in height has ceased.
Calcium and phosphate are constantly being removed and replaced(usually the rates are equal) to maintain normal blood levels of these minerals.
206 bones of the human skeleton are in two divisions:
The axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton. The axial skeleton consists of the skull, hyoid, vertebral column, and rib cage; all are flat or irregular bones and contain red bone marrow (hematopoietic tissue). The appendicular skeleton consist of the clones of the limbs and the shoulder and pelvic girdles, by which the limbs limbs attach to the axial skeleton.
The long bones of the limbs are those of the arm, forearm, hand and fingers and those of the thigh, leg, foot, and toes.
- All long bones have the same general structure:a central diaphysis, or shaft, with two ends called epiphyses.
- The diaphysis of long bones contain yellow bone marrow, which is mostly adipose-that is, stored energy; the epiphyses enclose red bone marrow.
- The bones of the wrist and ankle are short bones(except for the calcaneus, which is an irregular bone).
- the scapula is considered a flat bone, and the pelvic girdle is made of irregular bones.
- These bones contain red bone marrow.
Joints of the appendicular skeleton
- Type of joint and description:Symphysis
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