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What is North American Blastomycosis?
Systemic fungal infection
What is the contraindicating drug of Blastomycosis?
What is another word for emaciation?
What is the main school in the US to diagnose Systemic Fungal Infections?
Texas A&M University (TAMU)
Is Blastomycosis a zoonotic disease?
Where are Blastomycosis located in the environment?
What are the 2 top things caused by Systemic mycosis?
- 1. Persistent fever
- 2. Chronic cough
Does kennel cough have an elevated fever?
Name 3 etiologies?
- 1. Protozoan
- 2. Fungal
- 3. Rickettsiae
- 4. Bacteria
- 5. Chlamydia
- 6. Mycoplasm (PPL)
- 7. Viral
What is the leukocyte count in canines?
What is the leukocyte count in felines?
What is the PCV in canine?
What is the PCV in feline?
What is the hemaglobin amount for a cat?
What is the hemaglobin count for a canine?
What is the specific name for having estrus every 6 months?
What is the name for a male canine?
What is the name for a female canine?
what is the name for an unweaned pup?
the act of giving birth in canines is called?
what is a group of canines called?
what is the name for a male feline?
what is the name for a female feline?
the act of giving birth in felines is called?
How many clotting factors are there?
What is it called when there are complications to treatments or infections? Usually caused by the physician's activity, manner, or therapy?
When pertaining to vitals large breed dogs usually have? high or low
low rpm, bpm, bp
When pertaining to vitals small breed dogs usually have? high or low
high rpm, bpm, bp
When pertaining to vitals female dogs usually have? high or low
Higher rpm, bpm, bp
What does induced ovulater mean?
Will drop eggs once male penetrates
Cat estrus time is about how long?
What are cats in regards to ovulation?
What other animal is an induced ovulator?
What is the BUN test?
- Blood, Urea, Nitrogen
- Kidney function
What is the BUN for canine?
What is the BUN for feline?
When can BUN levels be elevated?
- 1. Kidney issues
- 2. After a meal
What is the normal BG (Blood Glucose) of canines?
What is the normal BG (Blood glucose) of felines?
What is another name for coagulation time?
What is the clot time of canines?
What is the clot time of felines?
What is the clot time of equines?
When is it important to observe clot times of a patient?
Before surgery, if it takes too long then p may have clot issues.
What is another kidney test besides BUN?
Creatine - CREAT
What does MCHC stand for?
Mean corpuscle hemoglobin concentration
What is a reservoir?
the natural habitat of its causative agent
What do reservoirs not do?
- shed the microorganism
- ex: egret and the equine infectious anemia
- (egrets don't get sick but are host of disease)
What is an etiological agent?
- any kind of microorganism that can cause an animal to develop a disease
- ex: Babesia canis is the disease of Canine babesiosis
What is an etiology?
What occurs with a Mechanical vector?
what occurs with a biological vector?
what occurs with a "carrier"?
- shedding of the microorganism
- doesn't have to be sick
- ex:Magic Johnson (HIV but not AIDS)
What is another name for Feline Distemper?
How is Feline Panleukopenia shed?
Is Strangles Streptococcus equi a bacteria or virus?
What is commonly used to treat Strangles?
Tetracycline IV in the jugular vein
What is the etiological agent of Strangles?
Do carriers have to be sick to carry the disease?
What two things are found to be considered a "source"?
What are 3 main "Source"?
- 1. Vertebrae
- 2. Invertebrate
- 3. Fomite (Inanimate object)
What is another name for an inanimate object?
What is a contagious infection?
spread of a disease after contact with a carrier or reservoir
What is a source point?
Point where parasites originate
What are two other names for contagious infection?
- 2. communicability
Indirect transmission is through what?
what is another name for transmammary?
- vertical transmission
what does it mean when there is direct transmission?
what does PPLO stand for?
Pleural pneumonia like organisms
how far do bacteria go that are airborne?
what are vector borne bacteria/viruses often spread by?
anthropods - blood or excretion
What are two other names for transovarila?
- 1. Inutero
- 2. Transplacental
Transmammary involves the transmission of what in the milk?
what is another name for Mastitis?
What is the tx for Mastitis?
What is another name for Transstadial transmission?
- (trans. of infectious etiology from molting stage. ex: nymph to host)
- ex: 3 host tick transferring etiology
What is congenital?
- Disease present at birth
- Sometime between conception and birth
- ex: cocaine baby
What transmits Canine babesiosis?
Rhipicephalus sanquineus (aka Brown dog tick)
What is congenital?
- Present at birth
- sometime between conception to birth
- ex: cocaine babies
What is hereditary?
- an abnormal arrangement of the genes
- ex: demodex - suppressed immune system
what occurs during sterilization?
- murder of microbes
- kills heat resistant spores
what occurs with sanitation?
- doesn't kill the spores
- not even sporocide kills spores
what is another name for cold sterilization?
what kind of cold sterilization do we use at LSC VT?
What is the Proprietary name for glutaraldehyde?
How long does the instrument have to sit in the Cidex?
What is a disinfectant used on?
It is meant for cleaning of fomites
What is an anticseptic used on?
meant for people/ animals
What is an anticseptic used at school?
Provodone Iodine (brown staining)
What is the proprietary name for Roccal-D?
What were 2 main issues with having surgery in the 1800's?
- 1. Lack of pain killers - analgesics (IV/Gas)
- 2. post surgical infections with antiseptics (antiseptics)
What is the most common cause of post surgical infections?
Who discovered that a specific disease is caused by a specific organism?
Von Plenciz - 1762
Who discovered viruses?
- Iwanowski 1892
- important note: it was after tx fever was found
Who claimed that living organisms (not God) was responsible for disease?
Fracastono - 1546
Who refined the microscope lens?
What is the definition of etiological agent?
anything that causes the loss of normal health, tissue, or organ.
What are the 8 etiologies?
- 1. viral
- 2. bacterial
- 3. fungal
- 5. metazoan (ex: trematodes)
- 6. rickettsia (ex: rocky mnt spotted fever)
- 7. chlamydiae (yeast)
- 8. mycoplasm (PPLO)
What is an elevated BUN, leukopenia, or anemia considered?
What is vomit or diarrhea an example of?
- most animal like protists
- ex: toxoplasmosis, piroplasmosis, coccidiosis
- non chlorophyll
- ex: mold/yeast, cant make their own food so they are parasites
mostly unicellular with rigid cell wall
what are the 3 shapes of bacteria?
- 1. coccus
- 2. bacillus
- 3. spirillum
Gram positive bacteria are what color stained? what are they considered
Gram negative bacteria are what color stained? what are they considered?
In bacteria what causes the gram stain to take hold?
Dormant bacteria are considered what? Give an example.
- Clostridium tetani releases the biological toxin "tetanospamin" -it is a spore
What is the bacteria involved in Rocky Mountain Spotted fever?
What is the vector of Rickettsia rickettsia and Rocky Mnt Spotted fever?
All rickettsia diseases must use "what" at some point during their life?
arthropod as vector
What bacterial phylum is similar to Rickettsia?
What are mycoplasmas smaller than?
why do mycoplasmas require "special antibiotics"?
no cell wall, which makes them more resistant to many kinds of antibiotics
who discovered RNA & DNA?
Watson and Crick
What does RNA stand for?
What does DNA stand of?
What type of etiological agent is Tx fever?
Internal factors of etiological agents (3)
- 1. genetic - defect or mutation
- 2. Immune system
- 3. aging
External factors of etiological agents (4)
- 1. Physical - trauma
- 2. chemical -toxins, poison, heavy metals
- 3. infections - parasites, bacteria
- 4. environmental - nutrition, temp, radiation, hygiene
What are two types of Upper respiratory infection in cats?
- 1. Rhinotracheitis
- 2. Feline Panleukopenia
What are 3 causes of disease?
- 1. Heredity - genetics
- 2. congenital - embryo or fetus
- 3. deficiency - lack of dietary substance or inability to digest. EX: rickets in young, osteomalacia in old
- 4. Physical trauma - laceration/fractures. etc
- 5. poisons - eaten, absorbed, inhaled
- 6. metazoan -multicellular organisms
- mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;
What does ELISA stand for?
Enzyme Linked Immuno sorbent assay test
What does Asymptomatic mean?
Animal does not show symptoms, but may still have disease
What does NIH stand for?
- National Institute of Health
- Fed. Agency that gives money for research
- Vets and Ph. D work there
What air exchange do we use in LSC VT?
12 - except for dog runs
What is parvo? (Basic def.)
Non-enveloped virus, resilient to many disinfectants
What are two types of vaccines?
- 1. Parenteral
- 2. Intranasal
What are the 3 “kinds” of vaccines that are used?
- 1. Killed
- 2. Modified Live
- 3. Recombinant
What is the purpose of the Vx?
- 1. Protect and often treat the animal
- 2. Herd Immunity
How do you protect the litter with vx?
- 1. Vx 1 month prior to breeding
- 2. Isolate the new born after vx
Louis Pauster and Sir Alfred Jenner - Late 1800's
worked together on Rabies vx and Anthrax
What the the “2” Vaccine Types?
- 1. Toxoid: Used to give the etiology to build AB
- 2. Antitoxin: Prepard AB, used to kill antigens in the body
· What are the Control Factors for Shelters?
- o Standard Temp: 72
- o Humidity 40-60%
- o Air Exchanges: 17 per hr
- o Light Cycle: 14/10 (14 on and 10 off)
- o Sodium Hypochlorite (bleach)-Let sit for 30mins
- § 1 part bleach/ 30 parts water
· What procedure is offered by vet med that has had the greatest impact on animal/human health?
· How have vaccines contributed to the health of people?
Improving the efficiency of food animal prod.
· What happens after an animal gets a vx?
The immune system begins prod. Antibodies specific for the antigen and stimulates cell mediated immunity
· What can vaccines be made from?
- o 1. Viruses
- o 2. Bacteria
- o 3. Rickettsiae
- o 4. Fungi
· What are vaccines made from Bacteria called?
· Why is it easier for an animal to get “more” protection from a virus in a vaccine than a bacteria?
The bacterin has toxins in its cell wall that causes issues..Ex: Anaphylactic Shock
· What are 2 bacterins that Dr. Y mentioned in class?
- o 1. Bordetella bronchiseptica (Kennel Cough)
- o 2. Streptococcus equi (Strangles)
· What happens to horses to vaccinated for Strangles?
- o They become VERY stiff
- o Elevated Fever
- § They receive 3 vx over 3 wks