Canine and Feline

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kkwalker
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233806
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Canine and Feline
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2013-09-11 08:59:26
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Canine Feline
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LSC Vet Tech Canine and Feline
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  1. What is North American Blastomycosis?
    Systemic fungal infection
  2. What is the contraindicating drug of Blastomycosis?
    Steroids
  3. What is another word for emaciation?
    Cachexia
  4. What is the main school in the US to diagnose Systemic Fungal Infections?
    Texas A&M University (TAMU)
  5. Is Blastomycosis a zoonotic disease?
    No
  6. Where are Blastomycosis located in the environment?
    Saprophyte (soil)
  7. What are the 2 top things caused by Systemic mycosis?
    • 1. Persistent fever
    • 2. Chronic cough
  8. Does kennel cough have an elevated fever?
    not really
  9. Name 3 etiologies?
    • 1. Protozoan
    • 2. Fungal
    • 3. Rickettsiae 
    • 4. Bacteria
    • 5. Chlamydia 
    • 6. Mycoplasm (PPL)
    • 7. Viral
    • 8.metazoan
  10. What is the leukocyte count in canines?
    11,000
  11. What is the leukocyte count in felines?
    13,000
  12. What is the PCV in canine?
    40-45%
  13. What is the PCV in feline?
    37%
  14. What is the hemaglobin amount for a cat?
    12 gm/100mL
  15. What is the hemaglobin count for a canine?
    14.5 gm/100mL
  16. What is the specific name for having estrus every 6 months?
    Diestrus
  17. What is the name for a male canine?
    dog
  18. What is the name for a female canine?
    bitch
  19. what is the name for an unweaned pup?
    whelp
  20. the act of giving birth in canines is called?
    whelping
  21. what is a group of canines called?
    pack
  22. what is the name for a male feline?
    tom
  23. what is the name for a female feline?
    queen
  24. the act of giving birth in felines is called?
    queening
  25. How many clotting factors are there?
    12
  26. What is it called when there are complications to treatments or infections?  Usually caused by the physician's activity, manner, or therapy?
    iatrogenically induced
  27. When pertaining to vitals large breed dogs usually have?  high or low
    low rpm, bpm, bp
  28. When pertaining to vitals small breed dogs usually have?  high or low
    high rpm, bpm, bp
  29. When pertaining to vitals female dogs usually have?  high or low
    Higher rpm, bpm, bp
  30. What does induced ovulater mean?
    Will drop eggs once male penetrates
  31. Cat estrus time is about how long?
    15-21 days
  32. What are cats in regards to ovulation?
    Induced ovulators
  33. What other animal is an induced ovulator?
    Walrus
  34. What is the BUN test?
    • Blood, Urea, Nitrogen
    • Kidney function
  35. What is the BUN for canine?
    15
  36. What is the BUN for feline?
    17
  37. When can BUN levels be elevated?
    • 1. Kidney issues
    • 2. After a meal
  38. What is the normal BG (Blood Glucose) of canines?
    85
  39. What is the normal BG (Blood glucose) of felines?
    75
  40. What is another name for coagulation time?
    clot time
  41. What is the clot time of canines?
    1-3 minutes
  42. What is the clot time of felines?
    1-5 minutes
  43. What is the clot time of equines?
    3-15 minutes
  44. When is it important to observe clot times of a patient?
    Before surgery, if it takes too long then p may have clot issues.
  45. What is another kidney test besides BUN?
    Creatine - CREAT
  46. What does MCHC stand for?
    Mean corpuscle hemoglobin concentration
  47. What is a reservoir?
    the natural habitat of its causative agent
  48. What do reservoirs not do?
    • shed the microorganism 
    • ex: egret and the equine infectious anemia
    • (egrets don't get sick but are host of disease)
  49. What is an etiological agent?
    • any kind of microorganism that can cause an animal to develop a disease
    • ex: Babesia canis is the disease of Canine babesiosis
  50. What is an etiology?
    origin
  51. What occurs with a Mechanical vector?
    no molting
  52. what occurs with a biological vector?
    molting
  53. what occurs with a "carrier"?
    • shedding of the microorganism 
    • doesn't have to be sick
    • ex:Magic Johnson (HIV but not AIDS)
  54. What is another name for Feline Distemper?
    Feline Panleukopenia
  55. How is Feline Panleukopenia shed?
    through discharges
  56. Is Strangles Streptococcus equi a bacteria or virus?
    Bacteria
  57. What is commonly used to treat Strangles?
    Tetracycline IV in the jugular vein
  58. What is the etiological agent of Strangles?
    Streptococcus Equi
  59. Do carriers have to be sick to carry the disease?
    no
  60. What two things are found to be considered a "source"?
    • 1. Reservoir 
    • 2.Carrier
  61. What are 3 main "Source"?
    • 1. Vertebrae
    • 2.  Invertebrate
    • 3. Fomite (Inanimate object)
  62. What is another name for an inanimate object?
    fomite
  63. What is a contagious infection?
    spread of a disease after contact with a carrier or reservoir
  64. What is a source point?
    Point where parasites originate
  65. What are two other names for contagious infection?
    • 1.transmissibility 
    • 2. communicability
  66. Indirect transmission is through what?
    • host
    • vehicle 
    • fomite
  67. what is another name for transmammary?
    • vertical transmission
    • galactogenic
  68. what does it mean when there is direct transmission?
    no host
  69. what does PPLO stand for?
    Pleural pneumonia like organisms
  70. how far do bacteria go that are airborne?
    3-4 feet
  71. what are vector borne bacteria/viruses often spread by?
    anthropods - blood or excretion
  72. What are two other names for transovarila?
    • 1. Inutero
    • 2. Transplacental
  73. Transmammary involves the transmission of what in the milk?
    etiological agent
  74. what is another name for Mastitis?
    Streptococcus agalactiae
  75. What is the tx for Mastitis?
    Penicillin
  76. What is another name for Transstadial transmission?
    • Interstadial
    • (trans. of infectious etiology from molting stage.  ex: nymph to host)
    • ex: 3 host tick transferring etiology
  77. What is congenital?
    • Disease present at birth
    • Sometime between conception and birth
    • ex: cocaine baby
  78. What transmits Canine babesiosis?
    Rhipicephalus sanquineus (aka Brown dog tick)
  79. What is congenital?
    • Present at birth
    • sometime between conception to birth
    • ex: cocaine babies
  80. What is hereditary?
    • an abnormal arrangement of the genes
    • ex: demodex - suppressed immune system
  81. what occurs during sterilization?
    • murder of microbes
    • kills heat resistant spores
  82. what occurs with sanitation?
    • doesn't kill the spores
    • not even sporocide kills spores
  83. what is another name for cold sterilization?
    liquid sterilization
  84. what kind of cold sterilization do we use at LSC VT?
    Glutaraldehyde
  85. What is the Proprietary name for glutaraldehyde?
    Cydex
  86. How long does the instrument have to sit in the Cidex?
    18 hours
  87. What is a disinfectant used on?
    It is meant for cleaning of fomites
  88. What is an anticseptic used on?
    meant for people/ animals
  89. What is an anticseptic used at school?
    Provodone Iodine (brown staining)
  90. What is the proprietary name for Roccal-D?
    Zephrin chloride
  91. What were 2 main issues with having surgery in the 1800's?
    • 1. Lack of pain killers - analgesics (IV/Gas)
    • 2. post surgical infections with antiseptics (antiseptics)
  92. What is the most common cause of post surgical infections?
    bacteria
  93. Who discovered that a specific disease is caused by a specific organism?
    Von Plenciz - 1762
  94. Who discovered viruses?
    • Iwanowski 1892
    • important note: it was after tx fever was found
  95. Who claimed that living organisms (not God) was responsible for disease?
    Fracastono - 1546
  96. Who refined the microscope lens?
    Leeuwenhoek 1762
  97. What is the definition of etiological agent?
    anything that causes the loss of normal health, tissue, or organ.
  98. What are the 8 etiologies?
    • 1. viral
    • 2. bacterial
    • 3. fungal
    • 4.protozoan
    • 5. metazoan (ex: trematodes)
    • 6. rickettsia (ex: rocky mnt spotted fever)
    • 7. chlamydiae (yeast)
    • 8. mycoplasm (PPLO)
  99. What is an elevated BUN, leukopenia, or anemia considered?
    clinical signs
  100. What is vomit or diarrhea an example of?
    symptoms
  101. Protozoan are:
    • most animal like protists
    • ex: toxoplasmosis, piroplasmosis, coccidiosis
  102. fungi are:
    • non chlorophyll 
    • ex: mold/yeast, cant make their own food so they are parasites
  103. bacteria are:
    mostly unicellular with rigid cell wall
  104. what are the 3 shapes of bacteria?
    • 1. coccus
    • 2. bacillus
    • 3. spirillum
  105. Gram positive bacteria are what color stained?  what are they considered
    • blue
    • basophilic
  106. Gram negative bacteria are what color stained? what are they considered?
    • red stain
    • eosinophilic
  107. In bacteria what causes the gram stain to take hold?
    cell wall
  108. Dormant bacteria are considered what?  Give an example.
    • Spore
    • Clostridium tetani releases the biological toxin "tetanospamin" -it is a spore
  109. What is the bacteria involved in Rocky Mountain Spotted fever?
    Rickettsia rickettsia
  110. What is the vector of Rickettsia rickettsia and Rocky Mnt Spotted fever?
    Dermacentor andersoni
  111. All rickettsia diseases must use "what" at some point during their life?
    arthropod as vector
  112. What bacterial phylum is similar to Rickettsia?
    Chlamydiae
  113. What are mycoplasmas smaller than?
    viruses
  114. why do mycoplasmas require "special antibiotics"?
    no cell wall, which makes them more resistant to many kinds of antibiotics
  115. who discovered RNA & DNA?
    Watson and Crick
  116. What does RNA stand for?
    ribonucleic acid
  117. What does DNA stand of?
    deoxyribonucleic acid
  118. What type of etiological agent is Tx fever?
    protozoan
  119. Internal factors of etiological agents (3)
    • 1. genetic - defect or mutation 
    • 2. Immune system
    • 3. aging
  120. External factors of etiological agents (4)
    • 1. Physical - trauma
    • 2. chemical -toxins, poison, heavy metals
    • 3. infections - parasites, bacteria 
    • 4. environmental - nutrition, temp, radiation, hygiene
  121. What are two types of Upper respiratory infection in cats?
    • 1. Rhinotracheitis 
    • 2. Feline Panleukopenia
  122. What are 3 causes of disease?
    • 1. Heredity - genetics
    • 2. congenital - embryo or fetus
    • 3. deficiency - lack of dietary substance or inability to digest.  EX: rickets in young, osteomalacia in old
    • 4. Physical trauma - laceration/fractures. etc
    • 5. poisons - eaten, absorbed, inhaled
    • 6. metazoan -multicellular organisms
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  124. What does ELISA stand for?
    Enzyme Linked Immuno sorbent assay test
  125. What does Asymptomatic mean?
    Animal does not show symptoms, but may still have disease
  126. What does NIH stand for?
    • National Institute of Health
    •         Fed. Agency that gives money for research
    • Vets and Ph. D work there
  127. What air exchange do we use in LSC VT?
    12 - except for dog runs
  128. What is parvo?  (Basic def.)
    Non-enveloped virus, resilient to many disinfectants
  129. What are two types of vaccines?
    • 1. Parenteral
    • 2. Intranasal
  130. What are the 3 “kinds” of vaccines that are used?
    • 1. Killed
    • 2. Modified Live
    • 3. Recombinant
  131. What is the purpose of the Vx?
    • 1. Protect and often treat the animal
    • 2. Herd Immunity
  132. How do you protect the litter with vx?
    •  1. Vx 1 month prior to breeding
    • 2. Isolate the new born after  vx
  133. Louis Pauster and Sir Alfred Jenner - Late 1800's
    worked together on Rabies vx and Anthrax
  134.   What the the “2” Vaccine Types?
    • 1. Toxoid: Used to give the etiology to build AB
    • 2. Antitoxin: Prepard AB, used to kill antigens in the body

  135. ·         What are the Control Factors for Shelters?
    • o   Standard Temp: 72
    • o   Humidity 40-60%
    • o   Air Exchanges: 17 per hr
    • o   Light Cycle: 14/10 (14 on and 10 off)
    • o   Sodium Hypochlorite (bleach)-Let sit for  30mins
    • §  1 part bleach/ 30 parts water

  136. ·         What procedure is offered by vet med that has had the greatest impact on animal/human health?


    Vaccination

  137. ·         How have vaccines contributed to the health of people?


    Improving the efficiency of food animal prod.

  138. ·         What happens after an animal gets a vx?


    The immune system begins prod. Antibodies specific for the antigen and stimulates cell mediated immunity

  139. ·         What can vaccines be made from?
    • o   1. Viruses
    • o   2. Bacteria
    • o   3. Rickettsiae
    • o   4. Fungi

  140. ·         What are vaccines made from Bacteria called?


    Bacterins

  141. ·         Why is it easier for an animal to get “more” protection from a virus in a vaccine than a bacteria?


    The bacterin has toxins in its cell wall that causes issues..Ex: Anaphylactic Shock

  142. ·         What are 2 bacterins that Dr. Y mentioned in class?
    • o   1. Bordetella bronchiseptica (Kennel Cough)
    • o   2. Streptococcus equi (Strangles)

  143. ·         What happens to horses to vaccinated for Strangles?
    • o   They become VERY stiff
    • o   Elevated Fever
    • §  They receive 3 vx over 3 wks

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