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What is empirical validation?
identifying effective teaching practices through rigorous scientific study
Define LD in IDEA
Specific learning disability means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or using language, spoken or written, which disorder may manifest itself in imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations.
What are 7 achievement skills that may be impaired for a student to have an LD?
- 1) oral expression
- 2) listening comp
- 3) written expresion
- 4) basic reading skills
- 5) reading comp
- 6) math calculation
- 7) Math reasoning
Describe the average LD student's cognitive abilities.
pervasive disabilities in cognition = MR. LD students generally have adequate cognitive abilities in most areas, but difficulty with specific cognitive tasks.
What are advantages of RTI?
- 1) identify students based on risk, rather than waiting for deficit
- 2) catch students sooner
- 3) reduced identification bias
- 4) focus on data and student outcomes
What are concerns of RTI?
- 1) Are interventions actually quality?
- 2) How can we guarantee that teachers know and can implement best interventions?
- 3) Who is a nonresponder?
How do you ensure a strong assessment? 3 things
- 1) Compare students performance to what is typical for age, gender, cultural group, intelligence, and opportunities to learn
- 2) Valid: Measure what I want?
- 3) Reliable: Others get same conclusion?
What are 5 general factors that are measured for LD?
- Language (decoding and encoding)
- 2) math abilities
- 3) cognitive abilities
- 4) social skills
- 5) environmental factors - observe in school and look at family
what is encoding and decoding?
- encoding - express and send
- decoding - receive and understand
Describe 3 conclusions about poverty
- 1) Increase in poverty increased ED identification
- 2) Increase in poverty decreased LD students
- 3) The disparity in identification of hard disabilities is significantly smaller than soft categories
What are 3 factors to consider in data about minority representation in special-ed?
- 1) poverty
- 2) nonwhite community proportion (more nonwhite the community is, more black students identified as MR)
- 3) Per pupil expenditure (complicated data)
How much do we spend per year on special-ed?
Probably $50-75 billion
What is the difference between hard and soft disabilities?
Hard dis. are easily diagnosed like blindness, while soft are more subjective and take judgment, like MR, LD, and ED.