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- What are the characteristics of metal. What is responsible for these characteristics
- Lustrous, ductile (easily stretched), malleable (shapable), thermally and electrically conductive. The way the electrons exist in a sea
Describe group 1A elements
They are the alkali metals. They form soft solids with low melting points and easily form +1 cations.
Deascribr group 2A elements
Alkaline earth metals. They are harder, more dense and have higher melting temps than alkali metals. They form +2 cations and are less reactive than alkali metals. Heavier ones are more reactive than lighter ones.
Describe group 4A elements
These elements form four covalent bonds with nonmetals. Only carbon can make strong pi bonds
Describe group 5A elements
Form 3 covalent bonds. All but nitrogen have d orbitals and can form 5 covalent bonds.
What two items of info allow you to predict the charge on transition metal ions
- 1: electrons are lost from highest energy shell first
- 2: ions look for symmetry. Representative elements make form noble gas electron configuration. Transition metals even out electrons I n d orbitals.
What are the representative elements. What are the transition elements
- Representative: all the group A
- Transition: all the group B
What are the periodic trends
- Energy of ionization
- Electron affinity
- Atomic radius
- Metallic character
- Acidity - increases left to right, top to bottom
- All beginning with "E" have trends increasing from left to right and bottom to top
- Other two increase right to left and top to bottom
Describe the difference between a group and a family on a periodic table
There is no difference. They are synonomous
Atomic number vs mass number and symbols for each
- Atomic number: defines an element and represents the number of protons (Z)
- Mass number: approximates the MW of an element by adding the number of neutrons to protons. (A)
Def an amu/dalton
- Amu is actually a mass
- 1 amu = 1 C(12) atom
- 6.022*10^23 amu= 1 gram
- The atomic weight, or molar mass of an atom.
Define a compound, emperical formula, molecule, and molecular formula
- Compound: a substance made from two or more elements in a defines ratio
- Empirical formula: gives the ratio of one element to another in a compound
- Molecule: units of repeated and distinct groups of elements. Water is a molecule. Saline is a compound
- Molecular formula: the exact number of elements found in a molecule
Def percent mass of an element in a molecule. How do you find the empirical formula from mass percent
- Mass percent=(Mass of the element)/(mass of the molecule)
- Empirical formula = [ (mass percent of an atom in a molecule * 100g)/(mol weight of of that atom)= moles of that atom. Compare ratios of the miles of each atom
How to name cations
- Cations first (with roman numerals for charge) or -ic to the end of cations with greater charge and -ous to cations with lesser charge
- If cations is a nonmetal, it ends in -ium (ie. Ammonium)
How to name anions
- Monatomic and polyatomic ions get suffix -ide (hydroxide = OH- or Hydride= H-)
- Polyatomic anions with multiple O's end with -ite or ate (more O's). If more possibilities exist, add hypo- or hyper- prefixes
- If oxyanion has a hydrogen, add the word hydrogen to front
How to name ionic compounds
Put cations first
How to name Acids
- Based on anion. If the anion ends in -ide, acid begins with hydro- and ends in -ic.
- If an oxyacid, -ic is used for species with more O's,and -ous for less
How to name binary molecular compounds
Name begins with element farthest to left and lowest in periodic table, second gets suffix -ide. Use Greek number prefixes as necessary.
What are the fundamental reaction types
- 1: combination
- 2: decomposition
- 3: single displacement
- 4 double displacement
Name, define the quantum numbers, describe how to derive them
- Principal quantum number(n): designates shell level (outermost shell is given by period for representative elements, lags one for transition, lanth/actinides lag 2 periods)
- Azimthumal quantum number (l): designates subshell/orbital shape. (l=n-1; 0=s, 1=p, 2=d 3=f)
- Magnetic quantum number (m_l): designates precise orbital. (m_l= (-)l-l)
- Electron spin quantum number m_s): (-/+)1/2
Def Pauli exclusion principle, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, and Aufbau principle
- Pauli exclusion: no 2 electrons can have the same four quantum numbers
- Heisenberg uncertainty: cannot know momentum and location of an electron at the same time
- Aufbau: electrons fill the lowest available energy orbitals first
What is Planck's quantum theory and what is the equation
- Planck's quantum theory: electromagnetic energy is quantized
- (d)E= hf
- H=plancks constant f= frequency
Define the photoelectric effect
- Photoelectric effect: one-to-one photon to electron collision
- Which proves light is made up of particles
Define diamagnetic and paramagnetic atoms. What is the significance.
- Diamagnetic: element with all valence shells filled completely. This means opposite spins of electrons in each shell cancel each other out and the atom has no magnetic characteristics.
- Paramagnetic: atom who has unpaired electrons in outer valence shell. Because all or some of the electrons do. Not have an oppositely spinning electron paired with them, they have magnetic character.
- Significance: diamagnetic are repelled by external magnetic forces and parq are attracted.
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