Gen chem 2 gases, kinetics, chemical equilibrium.txt
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- What is STP and standard vol
- 0° C
- 1 ATM
- 22.4 L
Define the mean free path
Distance traveled by a molecule between collisions
Give four properties of an ideal gas
- 1: 0 volume
- 2: no force other than repulsion during collision
- 3: all collisions are 100% elastic
- 4: average kinetic energy is directly proportional to temperature
Give ideal gas law equation
Define partial pressure and give equations
- Partial pressure: amount of pressure due to one gas in a mixture of gases
- P(tot)=sum of all partial pressures
Give equation for average kinetic energy of a gas or fluid
Give Graham's Law and what phenomena it helps explain
- Graham's law: (V1/V2)=((sqrtM2)/(sqrtm1))
- Associate with diffusion and effusion rates
How do real gasses deviate from ideal gases and what conditions cause this
- Real gases different from ideal gases at low volume because of intermolecular forces.
- Conditions: high pressure (above 10 ATM) low temp (near gases boiling point)
Define reaction rate law
- a+b= overall reaction order
- Rate double= 1st order
- Rate quadruple= 2nd order
Define chemical equilibrium, reaction quotient, give equations and relationship
- Chemical equilibrium: when the forward and reverse reactions rates are equal.
- Reaction Quotient: used to determine which direction the reaction will go
- Equilibrium constant K= ([product]^coefficient)/([Reactant]^coefficient)
- Reaction Quotient Q is the same as K equation
- Use Le Chatelier's principle to guide relationship between Q and K
Define Le Chatelier's principles. Give types of stress (3)
- Le Chatelier's principle: explains how a system in equilibriums will react to a stress
- 1: addition/subtraction of reactant or product
- 2: change in pressure
- 3: heat or cool temp
What properties effect the reaction rate constant
Temperature, catalyst, pressure (usually negligible)
Reaction rate is determined by multiplying a rate constant times the concentration of the reactants. If a reaction has multiple steps, how does the location of the rate determining step effect reactant concentrations?
- 1: rate determining step is the first step in the reaction, so the concentrations are equal to initial concentrations. No problem.
- 2. Rate determining step is at end or in the middle of overall reaction. This means a reactant is being produced faster than it is being used, so it builds up. This means the reactant concentration is equal to the equilibrium concentration of the intermediate molecule used in the rate determining step.
Caveats to Le Chatelier's principles
- 1: increase in pressure from a non reactive gas does not have any effect
- 2: if pressure is increased, the side of the equation with more moles is reduced even though pressure was increased to the entire system
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