Gen Chem 4 solutions.txt

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Gen Chem 4 solutions.txt
2013-09-09 18:26:37
Gen Chem solutions

Gen Chem 4 solutions.txt
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    • Def solution, solvent, solute
    • Solution: Is a homogenous mixture of two or more compounds in a single phase
    • Solvent: the compound of which there is more
    • Solute: compound of which there is less
  1. Ideal vs ideally dilute vs non ideal solutions
    • Ideal solutions: compounds with similar properties. Changing the amount of either compounds will not change spacial arrangement or I enter molecular interaction between molecules.
    • Ideal dilute: solute molecules are completely separated by solvent ,molecules so the solvent molecules do not interact with each other
    • Non ideal: violate both conditions
  2. Define colloid
    Colloid: like a solution, but particles are larger. Too small for filtration, but large enough to seperatd by a membrane. Aerosols are an example, also detract light
  3. Define solvation
    Solvation: ionic compounds breaking apart into cations and anion constituents in solvent
  4. Define hydration and aqueous phase
    • Hydration: a type of solvation done in water. Water molecules surround ions.
    • Aqueous phase: when hydration occurs, the compound is said to be in aqueous phase
  5. Define electrolyte
    Electrolyte: a found which forms an ion in aqueous phase giving the water electrical conductivity is a electrolyte
  6. Give the molecular formula for: nitrate
  7. Give the molecular formula for: nitrate
  8. Give the molecular formula for: sulfite
    SO3 2-
  9. Give the molecular formula for: sulfate
    SO4 2-
  10. Give the molecular formula for: hypochlorite
  11. Give the molecular formula for: Chlorite
    ClO2 -
  12. Give the molecular formula for: chlorate
    ClO3 -
  13. Give the molecular formula for: perchlorate
    ClO4 -
  14. Give the molecular formula for: carbonate
    CO3 2-
  15. Give the molecular formula for: bicarbonate
    HCO3 -
  16. Give the molecular formula for: phosphate
    PO4 3-
  17. Define: molarity and it symbol
    M=moles solute/vol solution
  18. Define: molality and it symbol
    m=moles solute/kg solvent
  19. Define: moe fraction and it symbol
    X=moles of solute/(total moles of solution)
  20. Define: mass percent and it symbol
    Mass %= [(mass solute)/(total solution mass)]x100
  21. Define: parts per million and it symbol
    ppm= (mass solute/total mass solution) x10^6
  22. What are 3 steps in forming a solution
    • 1: breaking intermolecular bonds in solute
    • 2: breaking intermolecular bonds in solvent
    • 3: formation of intermolecular bands between solvent and solute
  23. Define heat of solution
    Heat of solution: summation of enthalpy after each step of forming a solution. The heat of solution will be (+) endothermic or (-) exothermic
  24. Define Raoult's law
    • Raoult's law: describes vapor pressure of a solution.
    • Pv= XaPa
    • Vapor pressure = mole fraction of the
    • Liquid times vapor pressure of a pure liquid
  25. How does Raoult's law describe solutions with volatile solutes vs nonvolatile solutes
    • Nonvolatile solutes lower Pv. This means the vapor pressure will some percentage of the pure liquid vapor pressure
    • Volatile solutes add to vapor pressure. This means vapor pressure will be a fraction of the pure vapor pressure plus the present fraction of the volatile substance vapor pressure
  26. Describe how positive and negative heats of formation effect vapor pressure
    Positive heat of formation means the energy was added to the system so the bonds are weaker than before. Therefore the vapor pressure increases. Negative heats of formation are opposite and lower vapor pressure
  27. Define solubility, precipitation, and saturated
    • Solubility: a solvents tendency to dissolve solvent
    • Precipitation: reverse of dissolving
    • Saturated: dissolution and precipitation rates are in equuilibrium
  28. Define: Solubiltiy constant and it symbol
    Ksp=[products]\[reactants] solids and pure liquids are excluded
  29. What is the difference between solubility and solubility product
    • Solubility: max number of moles that can dissolve in a solvent. Changes with temperature and ions
    • Solubility product: a constant from a book and changes with temp only
  30. Spectator ions vs common ion ffect
    • Spectator ions: is an ion not part of the equilibrium expression and has no effect equilibrium
    • Common ion effect: is an ion in the equilibrium expression. Addition to a saturated solution will change equilibrium
  31. What does Henry's law say
    Solubility of a gas is proportional to its vapor partial pressure. Vapor pressure decrease = solubility decrease. Think opening a soda can
  32. When to use Henrys law and when to use raoults law
    Ideally dilute solution obeys raoults law, solute obeys Henrys law

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