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- Def thermodynamics
- The study of how energy effects a macroscopic system
Define a state function and give rule for determining extensive vs intensive properties. How many state properties are needed to define a system state. How are extensive and intensive properties related
- State function: any 3 states that define a system. One must be extensive
- Rule: imagine an exact duplicate of a system. Then add them together. If the property changes, it is extensive
- 3 state fxns will define any system
- Extensive/extensive=intensive. ie density=mass/vol
How to intuitively understand heat flow
Imagine it is fluid
What is chemical work, and what is the equation
- Pressure volume work
- W=PΔV pressure must be constant
How to think of a heat engine
Think of fluid because it is heat. Then compare to a concentration gradient. Heat flows from hot to cold and can do work. Cold heat must have work done on it to move from cold to hot
What are the 7 thermodynamic state functions
- Remember Gibb Has to Pee S T U V
- 1: Gibbs free energy
- 2: Enthalpy
- 3: Pressure
- 4: Enthalpy
- 5: Temperature
- 6: Internal Energy (U)
- 7: Volume
What are the 6 types of internal energy, which ones are in the sub category Thermal Energy
- 1: rotational
- 2: Translational
- 3: Vibrational
- 4: Intermolecular Potential
- 5: Electronic
- 6: Great Mass
- Thermal Energy: 1-3
What is the average kinetic energy of any fluid
Define Enthalpy. Define Change in Enthalpy
- ΔH=ΔU+ΔPV p must be constant
Define a standard state and standard Enthalpy of Formation
- Standard state: the reference enthalpy value of 0 for any substance. A substance exists in this state at 1 Barr and some specific temp.
- Standard Enthalpy of Formation: the change in H for a rxn that creates 1 mole of a compound from raw elements in their standard state
Define Hess's Law and what negative and positive values mean
- -ΔH= exothermic/spontaneous
- +ΔH= endothermic/nonspontaneous
Give entropy and Gibbs free energy equation
- ΔG=ΔH-TΔS (-ΔG is a spontaneous reaction)