The Appendicular Skeleton
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Pectoral (shoulder) Girdle
- Attaches upper limbs to trunk
- Each consists of 2 clavicles & scapulasDoes not articulate (join) with vertebral column
- Most frequently fractured bones
Clavicle (collar bone)
Consists of sternal (medial) & aromial (lateral) ends
- Shoulder blade
- Consists of vertebral (medial) border located near vertebral column
- Axillary (lateral) border located near armpit
- Coracoid process; anterior projection
- Subscapular fossa; anterior depression
- Spine; posterior border
- Acromion; flat portion of spine; highest point of shoulder
- Supra spinous fossa; depression above the spine
- Infra spinous fossa; depression below the spine
- Glenoid activity; forms the shoulder joint
- Each consists of 30 bones:
- 1 humerus (arms)
- 1 ulna (forearm)
- 1 radius (forearm)
- 8 carpal bones (wrist bones)
- 5 metacarpals (palms)
- 14 phalanges (digits)
- Longest & largest upper limb bone
- Proximal end forms the shoulder joint
- Distal end forms the elbow joint
- Head of humerus; located at proximal end
- Anatomical neck; directly supports head
- Greater tubercle; lateral point of shoulder
- Lesser tubercle; medial shoulder
- Body; cylindrical portion
- Deltoid tuberosity; roughened lateral, middle area
- Capitulum; lateral distal process
- Trochlea; medial distal process
- Radial & Coronoid Fossae; anterior distal depressions that receives radius and ulna during forearm flexion
- Olecranon fossa; posterior depression that recieves olecranon process of ulna during forearm extension
- Medial & lateral epicondyles; distal bony projections
- Ulnar nerve runs posterior to medial epicondyle (funny bone)
- Medial forearm bone (pinky side)
- Consists of:
- olcranon; elbow prominence
- coronoid process; anterior "lip" at proximal end
- Lateral forearm bone (thumb side)
- Consists of:
- Head articulates with capitulum of humerus
- Radius tuberosity
- Styloid process; distal projection of wrist
- Each carpus (wrist) consists of 8 carpals arranged in 2 rows:
- 1. Proximal row includes: 1 scaphoid, 2. lunate, 2 triquetrum, 4 isiform
- 2. Distal row includes: 5 trapezium, 6 trapezoid, 7 capitate, 8 hamate
- Scaphoid involved in 70% of carpal fractures
- Consists of 5 metacarpals in each hand numbered I-V
- Lateral to medial; thumb, index, middle. Each metacarpal consists of a proximal base, middle shaft & distal head "knuckles"
14 each hand; 2 in each thumb (pollex; thumb muscle) & 3 in each of the other digits
Pelvic Girdle (hipbones)
- Joined anteriorly by pubic symphysis
- Consists of 3 fused bones including illium, ishium & pubis
- Largest & Superior part
- Ilium Parts: iliac crest; superior border (hands on hip), anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS); hip pointer, auricular surface forms sacrolliac joint
- Inferior & Anterior
- Both the pubis & ischium form orburator foramen; largest foamen in skeleton
- Deep fossa; forms hip joint
- Pelvic brim (inlet) is a boundary dividing pelvis into superior & inferior portions
- False (greater) pelvis
- True (lesser) pelvis
False (greater) Pelvis
- Superior to brim
- (Boundaries) Bordered:
- *posteriorly; lumbar vertebrae
- *laterally; upper hip bones
- *anteriorly;abdominal wall
True (lesser) Pelvis
- Inferior to brim
- (Boundaries) Bordered:
- *posteriorly; saccrum & coccyx
- *laterally; lower hip bones
- *anteriorly; pubic bones
- Pelvic inlet & outlets are the superior & inferior openings
- Larger & heavier
- Smaller pelvic inlet & outlet
- Pubic arch is less than 90 deg
- Larger pelvic inlet (brim & outlet)
- Pubic arch is greater than 90 deg
- Illiac crest is less curved (wider hips)
- Coccyx more moveable
- Each consists of 30 bones including:
- 1 femur (thigh)
- 1 patella (knee cap)
- 1 tibia (leg bone)
- 1 fibula (leg bone)
- 7 tarsals (ankle)
- 5 metatarsals (foot)
- 14 phalanges (digits)
- Largest, heaviest, and strongest bone
- Proximally head forms hip joint
- Greater trochanter; body projection on side of hip
- Body (shaft) angles medially
- Linea aspera; posterior ridge of shaft
- Distally femur forms knee joint
- Sesamoid bone located in quadriceps tendon
- Base; broad surface
- Apex; narrow surface
- Increases leverage & maintains position of quadriceps tendon
- Patellofemoral stress syndrome; "runners knee" patella glides abnormally
- Medial weight bearing leg bone
- Proximal end articulates with femur forming knee joint
- Tibial tuberosity; distal to patella
- Distally, medial malleolus articulates with talus (ankle bone) & fibula to form ankle joint
- Smaller, lateral non-weight bearing leg bone
- Distally, lateral malleolus articulates with talus & tibia to form ankle joint
- Each consists of:
- Talus; most proximal & forms ankle joint
- Calcaneus (heel bone); largest & strongest
- Navicular (bat shaped), cuboid (cube shaped) & 3 cyneiforms (tarsal muscle)
- Consists of 5 metatarsals (I-V) in each foot numbered starting with big toe (great) toe called hallux
- "Tall Centers Never Take Shots From Corners"
- Support weight of body
- Foot arches:
- 1. transverse arch
- 2. logitudinal arch; consists of medial & lateral portions
- Flatfoot; medial longitudinal arch decreases or "falls"
- Clawfoot; medial longitudial arch abnormally elevated
The olecranon is at the proximal end of the ____.
The tibia articulates distally with the ____ & ____.
fibula & talus
Which structures are on the posterior surface of the upper limb?
olecranon process and olcranon fossa
The anatomical name for the socket into which the humerus fits is the _____ cavity.
The cuboid, triquetrum, navicular and first cuneiform are all _____ bones.
The _____ articulates (joins) with the sacrum.
The greater trochanter is a large bony prominence located near the ____ tuberosity.
The hamate, pisiform, trapezium and scaphoid are all _____ bones.
The sesamoid bone that forms in the the tendon of the quadriceps femoris muscle is the _______.
The portion of the pelvis superior to the pelvic brim is the _____ pelvis.
The ____ of the _____ fits into a depression called the acetabulum.
The metatarsals are ______ to the tarsals.
The acromial extremity is located on the lateral end of ______.
Body landmark: acromion articulates with the ______
Body landmark: coronoid process articulates with the _____
Body landmark: lateral malleolus articulates with the ______
Body landmark: deltoid tuberosity articulates with the ______
Body landmark: radial tuberosity articulates with the ______
Body landmark: anterior inferior illiac spine articulates with the _________
Body landmark: linea aspera articulates with the ________
Body landmark: ischial tuberosity articulates with the ______
Body landmark: coracoid process articulates with the ______
Body landmark: medial malleolus articulates with the ______
Body landmark: glenoid cavity articulates with the _____
Body landmark: coronoid fossa articulates with the _____
Body landmark: obturator foramen articulates with the _____ & _____
ischium & pubis
Function: Attaches the upper limbs to the axial skeleton
the pectoral girdle
Weakest part of the clavicle
its midregion at the junction of the two curves
Part of the scapula that forms the high point of the shoulder
How many bones make up each upper limb?
Each upper limb has 30 bones
Parts of the humerus that articulate with the radius at the elbow?
capitulum & radial fossa
Parts of the humerus articulates with the ulna at the elbow?
trochlea, coronoid fossa, & olecranon fossa
What part of the ulna is called the "elbow"?
Which is the most frequently fractured wrist bone?
Function: attaches the lower limbs to the axial skeleton and supports the vertebral column and pelvic area
the bony pelvis
Which part of the hip bone articulates with the femur?
acetabulum of the hip bone
Which part of the hip bone articulates with the sacrum?
auricular surface of the hip bone
How many bones make up each lower limb?
each lower limb has 30 bones
Why is the angle of convergence of the femurs greater in females than in males?
Because the female pelvis is broader
The patella is classified as a ______ bone because it develops in a tendon (tendon of the quadriceps femoris muscle of the thigh)
This bone bears the weight of the body.
Which tarsal bone articulates with the tibia & fibula?
Which bones make up the pectoral girdle?
clavicle & scapula
When you palpate your shoulder, the highest point you feel is the _____ process.
The roughened section on the humerus where the deltoid muscles attaches is called the deltoid _____.
The olecranon process is located on the distal end and posterior side of the ______.
The ____ is located in the forearm on the medial side (i.e. pinky side).
At the elbow joint, the radius articulates (connects) with:
the capitulum of the humerus
Lateral to your umbilicus, the projection you can palpate from the surface that people usually call you "hip bone" is actually what?
The head of the femur fits into the _____, a depression or socket in the hip bone.
Male and female pelvises differ in what ways?
- *female pelvises are wider and shallower
- *males have a more rounded obturator foramen
- *females have a rounder pelvic inlet
The sharp line along the anterior surface of your lower leg (your shin) is formed by the ____ crest of the fibula.
The projection on the lateral surface of your ankle is formed by which structure?
lateral malleolus of the fibula
The talus, calcaneus, and navicular bones are all _____ bones.
The tibiofemoral joint is another name for the ____ joint.
The _____ is a small bone located anterior to the knee joint.
When you are sitting, your weight is resting on the _____ tuberosities.
Your "heel" bone is the:
calcaneus (largest of tarsal bones)
There are __ phalanges in the entire body.
56 (14 in each)
The projection on the medial and posterior aspect of your wrist is formed by the:
styloid process of the ulna
At the lateral end of the superior border of the scapula is a projection of the anterior surface called the
The ramus and pubis surround the ____ foramen, the largest foramen in the skelton.
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