1.7.1 HAP

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1.7.1 HAP
2013-09-09 19:20:01

chem 1
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  1. What is a physiological system?
    is a system that requires matter and energy
  2. What is matter?
    occupies space
  3. 3 types of matter?


  4. matter- Solid
    has defined shape and volume
  5. matter- Liquid
    has defined volume but no shape
  6. matter- Gas
    no defined volume or shape
  7. What is energy?
    capacity to do work
  8. 2 types of energies

  9. energy- Kinetic
    energy used to produce work
  10. energy- Potential
    stored energy, not currently being used to produce work
  11. 5 forms of energy




  12. forms of energy- chemical (2)
    • -stored in chemical bonds
    • *glucose stores energy that is used to make ATP

    • -concentration differences
    • *I.E nerve cell
  13. forms of energy- electrical
    charges particles; ions
  14. forms of energy- Mechanical
    • directly moving object
    • *moving abox along the floor
  15. forms of energy- radiant
    • travels in waves
    • *such as light
  16. forms of energy-  thermal
    • molecular movement
    • *such as heat
  17. what 2 things make up the nucleus of an atom?
    protons and neutrons
  18. what consists of the atomic number?
    number of protons of nucleus
  19. what is a neutral atom?
    protons = electrons
  20. what does the mass number mean?
    sum of masses of protons and neutrons
  21. what are isotopes?
    variable mass numbers due to different number of neutrons
  22. what are isotopes used for?
    nuclear medicine
  23. Why are isotopes used for PET scans?
    -they decay therefore become radioactive. this allows us to capture that energy from the decay and track activity
  24. How does the PET scan harness the power of isotopes? (2)
    • PET harnesses the energy of positrons colliding wih electrons
    • *they give off gamma rays
  25. What does a person need to recive in order for the PET scan to work?
    an injection of radioactive substance
  26. What do collections of the same type atoms form?
    an element
  27. the number of ______ is the same in each atom within each element
  28. what two things differ slightly within elements?
    neutrons and electrons
  29. what is a molecule?
    • 2 or more atoms
    • *they can be same or different elements
  30. What is a compound?
    • 2 or more different elements
    • *NaCl
  31. what can potentially happen from breaking down compounds?
    it may provide energy to move matter
  32. what are mixtures?
    2 or more substances
  33. what is a solvent?
    substance in greatest quantity usually water
  34. what is solute?
    substance in smaller quantity usually ions,proteins, carbs, etc
  35. what does concentration of solutes do?
    express the ratio between solutes and solvents
  36. What is osmolarity/osmolality? (2)
    -number of particles within a solution

    • -may or may not be same value as molarity
    • *NaCl may dissociate and double the molarity
  37. Osmolarity is..
    • number of particles per liter
    • *volume
  38. Osmolatity is..
    • number of particles per kilogram of a solution
    • *weigth
  39. What are colloids?
    -solute is large but dissolvable

    -particles scatter light

    ex) jello, cytosol
  40. what are suspensions?
    mixtures where the solute will settle out unless you repeatedly shake it

    ex)sand in water, blood cells in plsma
  41. what are chemical bonds
    combination of atoms via elcetron sharing
  42. is each electron shell different level of enrgy?
  43. would an electron shell have higher energy is they were closer to nucleus or further?
  44. how many electrons does the lowest energy level accpt?
    2 electrons
  45. How many electrons does 2nd level accept?
  46. how many electrons does the 3rd level accept?
  47. where is the valence shell?
    outermost shell of that given atom
  48. where can electrons be reactive?
    on the valence shell
  49. What happens if the valence shell is full?
    atom is not reactive
  50. VAlence shell full on lowest energy means?
    2 electrons
  51. Valence shell full in 2nd level means>
    8 electrons
  52. valence shell full in 3rd level means
    at least 8
  53. what happens if the valence shell is not full?
    then atom is reactive
  54. which are more constant in nature, a reactive or non reactive atom?
    reactive atom
  55. what are ionic bonds?
    • one atom donates electron to the elctron shell of another atom
    • *anion and cation
  56. what is the end result of ionic bonds occuring?
    stable valences
  57. what are covalent bonds?
    electrons shared between 2 atoms
  58. what are the 2 types covalent bonds
    non-polar and polar
  59. covalent bonds- what are non-polar ?
    -electrons are spending equal amount of time around the nucli of both atoms
  60. covalent bonds- what are polar?
    -one electron spends more time around nucleus of one atom than another
  61. what are hydrogen bonds?
    attractions between slightly charged molecules such as water
  62. whn do hydrogen bonds normall occur?
    between molecules which are sliughtly charged and contain a hydrogen atom
  63. what are the 3 patterns of chemical reactions?


  64. chemical reactions- synthesis
    2 components forming a more complex component
  65. chemical reactions- decomposition
    take a complex component and break it down into simple ones
  66. chemical reactions- exchange
    exchange one component for another on a compound
  67. what are redox reactions?
    one compound gives an electron while another recives
  68. redox- electron donor
    • oxidized
    • *loss the electron
  69. redox- Electron recipient
  70. Whta type of bond is redox?
    ionic bond formation
  71. what is exergonic?
    • gives off enrgy
    • *breakdown of a glucose molecule
  72. what is endergonic?
    • absorbs energy
    • *formation of ATP
  73. what is reversibiltiy of chemical reactions?
    A+B> C    A+B <-> C
  74. what are 4 effectors of chemical reactions

    -particle size


  75. effectors of chemical reactions- temperature
    • higher
    • *faster rate
  76. effectors of chemical reactions- Particle size
    • larger or smaller
    • *smaller are faster, tend to collide more, more movement
  77. effectors of chemical reactions- concentration
    • greater concentration, the more reactions
    • *faster rate
  78. effectors of chemical reactions- catalysts
    • enzymes
    • *speed up a metabolic reaction