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What is a physiological system?
is a system that requires matter and energy
What is matter?
3 types of matter?
has defined shape and volume
has defined volume but no shape
no defined volume or shape
What is energy?
capacity to do work
2 types of energies
energy used to produce work
stored energy, not currently being used to produce work
5 forms of energy
forms of energy- chemical (2)
- -stored in chemical bonds
- *glucose stores energy that is used to make ATP
- -concentration differences
- *I.E nerve cell
forms of energy- electrical
charges particles; ions
forms of energy- Mechanical
- directly moving object
- *moving abox along the floor
forms of energy- radiant
- travels in waves
- *such as light
forms of energy- thermal
- molecular movement
- *such as heat
what 2 things make up the nucleus of an atom?
protons and neutrons
what consists of the atomic number?
number of protons of nucleus
what is a neutral atom?
protons = electrons
what does the mass number mean?
sum of masses of protons and neutrons
what are isotopes?
variable mass numbers due to different number of neutrons
what are isotopes used for?
Why are isotopes used for PET scans?
-they decay therefore become radioactive. this allows us to capture that energy from the decay and track activity
How does the PET scan harness the power of isotopes? (2)
- PET harnesses the energy of positrons colliding wih electrons
- *they give off gamma rays
What does a person need to recive in order for the PET scan to work?
an injection of radioactive substance
What do collections of the same type atoms form?
the number of ______ is the same in each atom within each element
what two things differ slightly within elements?
neutrons and electrons
what is a molecule?
- 2 or more atoms
- *they can be same or different elements
What is a compound?
- 2 or more different elements
what can potentially happen from breaking down compounds?
it may provide energy to move matter
what are mixtures?
2 or more substances
what is a solvent?
substance in greatest quantity usually water
what is solute?
substance in smaller quantity usually ions,proteins, carbs, etc
what does concentration of solutes do?
express the ratio between solutes and solvents
What is osmolarity/osmolality? (2)
-number of particles within a solution
- -may or may not be same value as molarity
- *NaCl may dissociate and double the molarity
- number of particles per liter
- number of particles per kilogram of a solution
What are colloids?
-solute is large but dissolvable
-particles scatter light
ex) jello, cytosol
what are suspensions?
mixtures where the solute will settle out unless you repeatedly shake it
ex)sand in water, blood cells in plsma
what are chemical bonds
combination of atoms via elcetron sharing
is each electron shell different level of enrgy?
would an electron shell have higher energy is they were closer to nucleus or further?
how many electrons does the lowest energy level accpt?
How many electrons does 2nd level accept?
how many electrons does the 3rd level accept?
where is the valence shell?
outermost shell of that given atom
where can electrons be reactive?
on the valence shell
What happens if the valence shell is full?
atom is not reactive
VAlence shell full on lowest energy means?
Valence shell full in 2nd level means>
valence shell full in 3rd level means
at least 8
what happens if the valence shell is not full?
then atom is reactive
which are more constant in nature, a reactive or non reactive atom?
what are ionic bonds?
- one atom donates electron to the elctron shell of another atom
- *anion and cation
what is the end result of ionic bonds occuring?
what are covalent bonds?
electrons shared between 2 atoms
what are the 2 types covalent bonds
non-polar and polar
covalent bonds- what are non-polar ?
-electrons are spending equal amount of time around the nucli of both atoms
covalent bonds- what are polar?
-one electron spends more time around nucleus of one atom than another
what are hydrogen bonds?
attractions between slightly charged molecules such as water
whn do hydrogen bonds normall occur?
between molecules which are sliughtly charged and contain a hydrogen atom
what are the 3 patterns of chemical reactions?
chemical reactions- synthesis
2 components forming a more complex component
chemical reactions- decomposition
take a complex component and break it down into simple ones
chemical reactions- exchange
exchange one component for another on a compound
what are redox reactions?
one compound gives an electron while another recives
redox- electron donor
- *loss the electron
redox- Electron recipient
Whta type of bond is redox?
ionic bond formation
what is exergonic?
- gives off enrgy
- *breakdown of a glucose molecule
what is endergonic?
- absorbs energy
- *formation of ATP
what is reversibiltiy of chemical reactions?
A+B> C A+B <-> C
what are 4 effectors of chemical reactions
effectors of chemical reactions- temperature
effectors of chemical reactions- Particle size
- larger or smaller
- *smaller are faster, tend to collide more, more movement
effectors of chemical reactions- concentration
- greater concentration, the more reactions
- *faster rate
effectors of chemical reactions- catalysts
- *speed up a metabolic reaction
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