1.8.1 HAP

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efrain12
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233905
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1.8.1 HAP
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2013-09-09 20:19:13
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HAP
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chem 2
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  1. what is difference between an organic and inorganic compound?
    • organic compound contains carbon
    • *there are exceptions to this
  2. Inorganic or organic? water
    inorganic
  3. inorganic-heat properties- Water
    it absorbs and loses heat before it changes composition
  4. inorganic- Solvent properties-water
    polarity
  5. inorganic- Reactivity-water
    hydration and synthesis reactions
  6. inorganic compounds- what are salts?
    ionic compounds with cations other than H+ and anions other than OH-
  7. inorganic-salts-electrolytes
    ions, conduct current
  8. inorganic-salts- anions
    negatively charged ions
  9. inorganic- salts- cations
    posititvely charged ions
  10. inorganic- are acids proton donor or acceptors?
    • proton donors
    • *dissociate in water
  11. inorganic-(H+)(acids) do weak acids dissociate?
    they do not completely dissociate
  12. inorganic-(H+)(acids) do strong acids dissociate?
    the completely dissciate
  13. inorganic-(H+) do bases accept or receive protons?
    receives
  14. inorganic-(H+)(bases) Weak bases are
    weak proton acceptors
  15. inorganic-(H+)(base) strong bases are..
    strong acceptors
  16. inorganic-(H+)waht is pH?
    measure of concentration of hydrogen ions in solution`
  17. the lower the pH the...
    more acidic it is
  18. the higher the pH the ...
    more it is a base
  19. inorganic-(H+) what are buffers?
    weak acids and bases
  20. inorganic-(H+) what do buffers do?
    prevents large pH shifts in order to maintain normal life function
  21. organic compounds- carbohydrates- monosacharride
    one chain or ring
  22. organic compounds- carbs- what are 3 examples of carbs?
    -ribose

    -glucose

    -fructose
  23. organic compounds- carbs- disaccharides
    2 rings joined
  24. organic compounds- what are polysaccahrides?
    3 or more sugars
  25. what is the function of carbs?
    fuel for body
  26. what 3 things make a carbohydrate?
    -carbon

    -hydrogen

    -oxygen
  27. what 3 things make up lipids?
    -carbon

    -hydrogen

    -oxygen
  28. whats the other thing that lipds contain?
    phosphorous
  29. what are neutral fats?
    triglcyrides
  30. what two things do triglycerides contain?
    -glycerol

    -fatty acids
  31. organic-lipids-triglycerides- what is a Glycerol
    3 carbon
  32. organic-lipids-triglycerides- what are fatty acids?
    long carbon chains
  33. organic-lipids-triglycerides-what are two types of fatty acids?
    saturated and unsaturated
  34. organic-lipids-triglycerides-fatty acids- saturated
    no C-C double bonds
  35. organic-lipids-triglycerides-fatty acids- unsaturated
    at least one c-c double bonds
  36. organic-lipids-triglycerides- what is leftover when a glycerol and 3 fatty acid chains get together?
    3 water moelcules
  37. organic-lipids- what are phospholipids?
    one fatty acid chain replaced by phosphate group
  38. organic-lipids- what are steroids?
    flat, 4 hydrocarbon rings
  39. organic-lipids-what 4 things is cholesterol involved in?
    -membranes

    -bile salts

    -vit. D

    -steroid hormones
  40. organic-lipids- what are eicosanoids?
    20 carbon
  41. organic-lipids-what is one type of lipid that we use for inflammation?
    Eicosanoids> Prostaglandins
  42. organic -what 4 thigns make up proteins?
    -carbon

    -hydrogen

    • -oxygen
    • -nitrogen
  43. organic -waht 3 things does a prtein consist off?
    -amine group

    -organic acid

    -side chain
  44. organic - proteins- what is primary struture of protein
    • amino end of one amino acid joins with acid end of second amino acid
    • *forms peptide bond
  45. organic -proteins- what is the secondary structure?
    • folding of protein due to amino acid chain arrangement
    • *alpha helix and beta sheet
  46. organic - proteins- secondary struture- how are alpha helix formed?
    by coiling of the primary chian and it stabilizes by hydrogen bonds formed between NH and CO groups in amino acids in primary chain
  47. organic - prteins- 2nd sturturec- how are beta sheets formed?
    primary peptides chain does not coil but are linked side by side through hydrogen bonds that forma pleated structure
  48. organic - proteins- what is the teritary structure
    helix or sheet folds over itself
  49. organic - proteins- 3rd structure- why does it fall over?
    allows different areas of protein to be brought closer to proximity when usually they are far apart in first struture
  50. organic - proteins- wat is quatenery sturtce?
    • aggregation of 2 or more polypeptide chains
    • ex) hemoglobin
  51. organic - proteins- 4th structure- can all proteins have a 4th structure?
    no
  52. organic - proteins- what are fibrous proteins
    -strandlike

    -important in tensile strenght
  53. organic - protiens- what are globular proteins?
    -spherical

    -often are enzymes
  54. organic - proteins- enzymes- what are cofactors?
    small molecule necessary for the enzyme to function effectively
  55. organic - proteins- enzymes-what are coenzyemes
    • large organic cofactor
    • ex) vitaimins
  56. organic - proteins- enyzmes- what is teh activaition energy?
    energy needed to bring 2 moelcules into reaction
  57. organic - prtoeins-enzymes- what are subtrates? (2)
    -bind to enzyme

    -reactants
  58. organic - proteins-enzymes -what are active sites?
    where reactants bind enzyme
  59. organic -proteins- waht are molecular chaperones?
    heat shock proteins
  60. organic - proteins- what 5 things does molecular chaperones do?
    -assist protein folding during synthesis

    -prevent incorrect folding

    -aid association process

    -translocation of protein across cell membranes

    -promote breakdown of damaged or denatured proteins
  61. organic - nucleic acids- what 5 elements make up nucleic acid?
    -carbon

    -hydrogen

    -oxygen

    -nitrogen

    -phosphate
  62. organic - nucleic acid- DNA location
    nucleus and mitochondrion
  63. organic - nucleic acid- DNA structure
    double helix
  64. organic - nucleic acid- DNA stability
    • stable
    • *does not degrade easily
  65. organic - nucleic acid- DNA function
    template for protein synthesis
  66. organic - nucleic acid- DNA sugar element?
    deoxyribose
  67. organic - nucleic acid- DNA 4 bases
    -adenine

    -thymine

    -cytosine

    -guanine
  68. organic - nucleic acid- DNA backbone
    deoxyribose and phosphate
  69. organic - nucleic acid- how do DNA bases complementary base
    A:t and C:G
  70. organic - nucleic acid- RNA location
    • outside of nucleus
    • *made inside nuclues but works outside
  71. organic - nucleic acid- RNA structure
    single stranded
  72. organic - nucleic acid- RNA stability
    easily broken down
  73. organic - nucleic acid- RNA function
    -protein synthesis
  74. organic - nucleic acid- RNA function- protein synthesis 3 jobs
    -messenger mRNA

    -ribosome rRNA

    -amino acid carrier tRNA
  75. organic - nucleic acid- RNA sugar element?
    ribose
  76. organic - nucleic acid- RNA 4 bases
    -adenine

    -guanine

    -cytosine

    -uracil
  77. organic - nucleic acid- RNA comple. bases
    A:U and G:C
  78. what is adenosine triphsophate? (3)
    -atp

    -nucleotide with 2 additional phosphate groups

    -main energy currency for body

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