Fire behaviour/hose & hydrants/suppression
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What are the two types of HFD hose clamps?
- Hebert (screw down)
- Akron (press down)
How are hand attack lines attached to a ladder?
- 38 mm hose - hose strap attached at the top and bottom of the ladder
- 65 mm hose - hose strap attached at the top and bottom of the ladder, by each coupling, and halfway between the couplings (15 m hose would have a strap at either end and at roughly 7.5 m from the end)
How should hose be positioned when being advanced up or down a stairway?
Keep it to the outside of the stairway and avoid sharp kinks/bends, excess hose should be flaked outside the stairway.
What must you do when replacing a ruptured hose?
Replace it with two lengths of hose.
What are the 3 states of matter?
Solid, liquid, gas.
What are the 5 types of energy?
- Chemical (created by chemical reactions, either endothermic or exothermic)
- Light (caused by electromagnetic waves packaged in discrete bundles called photons)
- Nuclear (created by fission or fusion)
- Mechanical (converted to heat when two materials are rubbed together)
- Electrical (produce heat while flowing through a wire or other conductive material)
What does a fuel combined with oxygen create?
Water and carbon dioxide.
What are the 4 methods of extinguishment?
- Remove the fuel
- Cool the burning material
- Exclude oxygen
- Break the chemical reaction
What are Class A fires and the corresponding symbol?
Involve ordinary solid combustibles (green triangle)
What are Class B fires and the corresponding symbol?
Involve flammable or combustible liquids (red square)
What are Class C fires and the corresponding symbol?
Involve energized electrical equipment (blue circle)
What are Class D fires and the corresponding symbol?
Involve combustible metals (yellow star)
What are Class K fires?
Involve combustible cooking oils and fats.
What are the 8 indicators of backdraft?
- Confined fire with a large heat build-up
- Little visible flame from the exterior
- Smoke puffing from the building
- Smoke that seems to be pressurized
- Smoke-stained windows
- No smoke showing
- Turbulent smoke
- Thick yellowish smoke
Describe the vapour density of propane and natural gas related to atmospheric air.
- Propane - vapour density > 1, sinks in air.
- Natural gas - vapour density < 1, floats in air.
Key attributes of smoke regarding smoke reading
Smoke volume, velocity, density and colour.
What are the 3 different methods of attack?
Direct, indirect, combination.
What 4 types of streams does the HFD use?
Solid, straight, fog and broken streams.
What 4 components are necessary for all fire streams?
- Pressurized device (pump)
- Agent (water)
What are the 4 forces which affect fire streams?
Wind, velocity, gravity and friction.
What are the flow rates for handlines?
- 38 mm = 360 L/minute
- 65 mm = 750 L/minute
How does water extinguish fire?
- Diluting or excluding oxygen
What is the ratio of water expansion when heated?
At 100 degrees Celsius, one part water expands approximately 1700 times its original volume when converted to steam.
What is the expansion ratio of propane?
270 to 1.
Why is water valuable as an extinguishing agent?
- It is readily available
- It is relatively inexpensive
- It has greater heat absorbing capacity than most other common agents
- It can be converted to steam to aid in extinguishment
- It can be applied in a variety of ways
What are some factors which increase friction loss?
- Rough hose linings
- Damaged hose couplings
- Kinks/sharp bends in hose
- More adapters than necessary
- Hose lines longer than necessary
- Hose diameter too small for volume of water needed
What does a high rise pack consist of?
- 2 - 38 mm hoses (15 m lengths)
- 1 - 38 mm fog nozzle
- 1 - 65-38 mm reducer
- 1 - pipe wrench
- 1 - collapsible hose key
- sprinkler plugs
- rubber latch straps
What does a hydrant kit consist of?
- 1 - 65 mm gate valve
- 1 - adjustable hydrant key
- 1 - 115-100 mm Steamer port adapter
- 1 - 65 mm combination key
- 1 - 65 mm female to 100 mm Storz adapter
- 1 - 65 mm double female adapter
What are the types of hose used by the HFD?
- Double cotton jacket rubber lined (38, 65 mm)
- Synthetic double jacket rubber lined (38, 65 mm)
- Nitral/PVC (65, 100, 125 mm)
- Rubber covered (150 mm)
What are the different types of hose damage?
- Mechanical (slices, rips, abrasions)
- Hot and cold (excessive heat, flame impingement, freezing)
- Mildew (mildew, mold rots fibers of hose jacket)
- Chemical (paints, alkalis, acids, petroleum products)
When and to what pressure are hoses tested?
Annually and after repair to 1700 kPa.
When is hose changed?
On the day of the month corresponding to the apparatus number (Engine 5 changed on the 5th day of the month).
Describe the Higbee indicator
- Truncating threads are cut in a "V" shape at a 60 degree angle
- Prevents binding and cross-threading
- Helps to clear grit from the threads
What are the one person methods of making and breaking hose?
- Foot-tilt method (making)
- One-armed fireman (breaking)
- Knee-press method (breaking)
What are the two person methods of making and breaking hose?
- Stiff-arm method (breaking)
- Two firefighter method (making/breaking)
- Hose key method (making/breaking)
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