human anatomy chapter 4 tissues

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alicia0309
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233955
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human anatomy chapter 4 tissues
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2013-09-10 00:28:56
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Human Anatomy
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Chapter 4 Study Guide Tissues
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  1. what is a tissue?
    A group of cells performing similar functions.
  2. the body has how many categories of tissues
    4
  3. extracellular matrix
    a substance produced by the cells of a specific tissue and can contain protein fibers, salts, H2O and dissolved macromolecules
  4. where is extracellular matrix located?
    on the outside of cells
  5. what are the types of tissue?
    • Epithelial
    • Connective
    • Muscle
    • Nervous
  6. epithelial tissue
    • lines every body surface and all body cavities
    • lines the inside and outside of organs
    • Forms Epidermis
    • has little to no extracellular matrix
  7. what regulates movement of substances from one environment to the next
    Epithelial Tissue
  8. characteristics of epithelial tissue
    • cellularity
    • polarity
    • attachment
    • avascularity
    • regeneration
  9. Epithelial Tissue Cellularity
    • composed almost entirely of cells with little extracellular matrix.
    • Cells are bound together by several types of intercellular¬†junctions
  10. Epithelial Tissue Polarity
    Epithelial cells have Apical (top/exposed) surface and basal surface where they attach to underlying cells
  11. epithelial tissue attachment
    basal surface attached to a thin basement membrane
  12. epithelial tissue avascularity
    all epithelial tissues lack blood vessels, the cells receive their nutrients by diffusion from underlying tissues.
  13. epithelial tissue regeneration
    because apical surface is constantly exposed epithelial cells are frequently damaged or die. they are replaced as quickly as they are lost.
  14. what are the functions of the epithelial tissue
    • physical protection
    • selective permeability (regulates passage of certain molecules)
    • Secretion (exocrine glands secrete sweat or oil)
    • Sensations (nerve endings detect light, taste, sound, smell, hearing)
  15. basement membrane
    • specialized structure of the epithelium
    • acts as barrier
    • provides support and anchoring
  16. tight junctions
    • crown royal bag
    • gatekeepers
  17. adhering junctions
    velcro
  18. Desmosomes
    buttons-snap together
  19. Gap junctions
    fluid filled channels
  20. classification of epithelial tissue
    • number of layers
    • shape of cells
  21. simple epithelium
    single layer all having the same apical surface and attached to the basement membrane
  22. stratified epithelial tissue
    • more than one layer
    • not all cells have an apical surface nor attach to the basement membrane
  23. Pseudostratified Epithelial Tissue
    • single layer, but not all cells reach apical surface
    • their nuclei give the appearance of multi-layered, stratified but they are not
  24. what are the shapes of the cell
    squamous-flat, egg shaped

    • cuboidal- cube shaped, nucleus usually centrally located
    • columnar - rectangular, nucleus oval
  25. endocrine glands
    • do not possess ducts
    • secrete directly into the interstitial fluid or bloodstream
  26. Exocrine Glands
    • Possess ducts
    • their cells secrete their products into their ducts
    • almost all exocrine glands are derived from epithelial tissue
  27. functions of the connective tissue
    • physical protection
    • support and structure
    • Binding of structures
    • storage-(fat)
    • transport-(blood)
    • Immune Protection
  28. structural components of connective tissue
    • cells
    • protein fibers
    • ground substance
  29. classification of Connective Tissue
    • Connective Tissue Proper
    • Supporting Connective Tissue
    • Fluid Connective tissue
  30. what are the sells of Connective Tissue
    • Resident Cells
    • Wondering Cells
  31. Resident Cells of Connective Tissue include:
    • fibroblasts
    • adipocytes
    • fixed macrophages
    • mesenchymal cells
  32. connective tissue wandering cells include
    • mast and plasma cells
    • free macrophages
    • leukocytes
  33. what are the fibers of the connective tissue
    • Elastic Fibers- thinner than collagen, stretch easy, branch and rejoin
    • Reticular Fibers-thinner than collagen, form mesh like configuration
    • Collagen Fibers-long, unbranching, strong
  34. Collagen
    long, unbranching, strong, flexible resistant tp stretching. they make up 25% of all protein in human body
  35. Reticular Fiber
    • thinner than collagen, form mesh like configuration
    • found in organs with abundant spaces, liver, lymph nodes and spleen
    • Packing Material
  36. Elastic Fibers
    thinner than collagen, stretch easy, branch and rejoin. These fibers allow structures such as blood vessels to stretch and relax
  37. connective tissue proper
    classifications
    • loose-has fewer protein fibers more ground substance
    • dense- more protein fibers and less ground substances
  38. loose Connective tissue includes:
    • Serves as the body's packing material
    • Areolar
    • Adipose
    • Reticular
  39. Dense connective tissue
    • Strong has fibers packed tightly together
    • Dense Regular
    • Dense Irregular
    • Elastic
  40. 2 types of supporting connective tissue
    • bone
    • cartilage
  41. Metaplasia
    epithelia lining the respiratory airways of people who smoke change from pseudostratified ciliated to stratified squamous epithelium
  42. Hypertrophy
    increase in the size of the existing cells
  43. hyperplasia
    increase in the number of cells on a tissue
  44. Neoplasia
    out of control growth which forms a tumor
  45. Atrophy
    Shrinkage of tissue either by cell size or cell number

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