rapid review

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theapk200
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233998
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rapid review
Updated:
2013-09-10 20:52:19
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first aid
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classic presentations, classic lab findings, classic relevant rx, key associations, imp equations
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  1. abd pain, hepatomegly and ascites is classical presentation of
    Budd chairi synd (post hepatic venous thrombosis)
  2. achilles tendon xanthoma is classical presentation of
    familial hypercholesterolemia - dec LDL recetor signaling
  3. adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension and DIC is classical presentation of
    Waterhouse - Friderichsen synd (meningococcemia)
  4. arachnodactyly, lens dislocation, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints is classical presentation of
    marfan's synd (fibrillin defect)
  5. athelete with polycythemia is classical presentation of
    secondary to erythropoeitin inj
  6. back pain, fever, night sweats and weight loss is classical presentation of
    pott's disease (vertebral TB)
  7. bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis is classical presentation of
    sarcoidosis (non caseating granulomas)
  8. blue sclera is classical presentation of
    osteogenesis imperfecta (type I collagen defect)
  9. bluish line on gingiva is classical presentation of
    burton's line (lead poisoning)
  10. bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis is classical presentation of
    paget's disease of bone (inc osteoblastic and clastic activity)
  11. bounding pulses, diastolic heart murmur, head bobbing is classical presentation of
    aortic regurgitation
  12. butterfly facial rash, raynaud's phenomenon in a young female is classical presentation of
    SLE
  13. cafe-au-lait spots, lisch nodules (iris hammartomas) is classical presentation of
    NF type I (+pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas)
  14. cafe-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precoucious puberty, multiple endocrine abnormalities is classical presentation of
    McCune-Albright synd (mosaic G-protein signalling mutation)
  15. calf pseudohypertrophy is classical presentation of
    muscular dystrophy (most commonly Duchenne's - X linked recessive deletion of Dystrophin gene)
  16. cherry red spot on the macula is classical presentation of
    Tay Sachs (ganglioside accumulation) or Neimann-Pick (sphingomyelin accumulation), central retinal artery occlusion
  17. chest pain on exertion is classical presentation of
    angina (stable -with moderate exertion, unstable - with minimal exertion)
  18. chest pain, pericardial effusion/friction rib, persistent fever following MI is classical presentation of
    Dressler's synd (autoimmune - mediated post MI fibrinous pericarditis, 1-12 weeks after acute episode)
  19. child uses arms to stand up from squat is classical presentation of
    Gower's sign (Duchenne muscular dystrophy)
  20. child with fever later develops red rash on face that spreads to body is classical presentation of
    Slapped cheeks (erythema infectiosum/fifth disease: parvevirus B19)
  21. chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration is classical presentation of
    Huntington's disease (Autosomal dominant CAG repeat expansion)
  22. chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps, myoglobinuria is classical presentation of
    McArdle's disease (muscle glycogen phosphorylase deficiency)
  23. cold intolerance is classical presentation of
    hypothyroidism
  24. conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia is classical presentation of
    internuclear ophthalmoplegia (damage to MLF; bilateral-MS, unilateral - stroke)
  25. continous machinery heart murmur is classical presentation of
    PDA (closed with indomethacin; maintained/opened with misoprostol)
  26. cutaneous/dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition is classical presentation of
    myxedema (cause by hypothyroidism, Grave's disease [pretibial])
  27. dark purple skin/mouth nodules is classical presentation of
    kaposi's sarcoma (usually AIDS patients [MSM]: associated with HHV-8)
  28. deep, laboured breathing/hyperventilation is classical presentation of
    kussmaul breathing (DKA)
  29. dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea is classical presentation of
    pellagra (vit B3/niacin deficiency)
  30. dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, alcoholism or malnutrition is classical presentation of
    wet beriberi (thiamine/vit B1 deficiency)
  31. dog or cat bite resulting in infection is classical presentation of
    Pasteurella multocida (cellulitis at innoculation site)
  32. dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis is classical presentation of
    Sjogren's synd (autoimmine destruction of exocrine glands)
  33. dysphagia (esophageal web), glossitis, Fe deficiency anemia is classical presentation of
    Plummer-Vinson synd (may progress to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma)
  34. elastic skin, hypermobility of joints is classical presentation of
    Ehlers-Danlos synd (type III collagen defect)
  35. enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node is classical presentation of
    Virchow's node (abdomina metastasis)
  36. erythroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells is classical presentation of
    Sezary synd (cutaneous T cell lymphoma) or mycosis fungoides
  37. facial muscle spasm upon tapping is classical presentation of
    Chvostek's sign (hypocalcemia)
  38. fat, female, forty and fertile is classical presentation of
    cholelithiasis (gall stones)
  39. fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment of syphilis is classical presentation of
    Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction (rapid lysis of spirochetes results in toxin release)
  40. fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash is classical presentation of
    Measles (Morbillivirus)
  41. fever, night sweats, weight loss is classical presentation of
    B symptoms (staging) of lymphoma
  42. fibrous plaques in the soft tissues of penis is classical presentation of
    Peyronie's disease (connective tissue disease)
  43. gout, mental retardation, self mutilating behavior in a boy is classical presentation of
    Lesch-Nyhan synd (HGPRT deficiency, X linked recessive)
  44. green yellow rings around peripheral cornea is classical presentation of
    kayser-Fleischer rings (copper accumulation from Wilson's disease)
  45. hamartomatous GI polyps, hyerpigmentation of mouth/feet/hands is classical presentation of
    Peutz-Jeghers synd (inherited, benign polyposis can cause bowel obstruction; inc cancer risk, mainly GI)
  46. hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms is classical presentation of
    Gaucher's disease (glucoceribrosidase deficiency)
  47. hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts is classical presentation of
    Alport synd (mutation in α chain of collagen IV)
  48. hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility is classical presentation of
    Kluver-Bucy synd (bilateral amygdala lesion)
  49. hyperreflexia, hypertonia, Babinski sign present is classical presentation of
    UMN damage
  50. hyporeflexia, hypotonia, atrophy, fasciculations is classical presentation of
    LMN damage
  51. hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia is classical presentation of
    "Blue bloater" (chronic bronchitis: hyperplasia of mucus cells)
  52. indurated, ulcerated genital lesion is classical presentation of
    • non painful: chancre (primary syphilis, Treponema pallidum)
    • painful, with exudate: chancroid (Haemophilus ducreyi)`
  53. infant with cleft lip/palate, microcephaly or holoprocencephaly, polydactyly, cutis aplasia is classical presentation of
    Patau's synd (trisomy 13)
  54. infant with failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, and neurodegeneration is classical presentation of
    Neimann-Pick disease (genetic sphingomyelinase deficiency)
  55. infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive and hepatomegaly is classical presentation of
    Cori's disease (debranching enzyme deficiency)
  56. infant with microcephaly, rocker-bottom feet, clenched hands, and structural heart defects is classical presentation of
    edward's synd (trisomy 18)
  57. jaundice, palpable distended non-tender gallbladder is classical presentation of
    Courvoisier's sign (distal obstruction of biliary tree)
  58. large rash with bull's eye appearance is classical presentation of
    erythema chronicum migrans from Ixodes tick bite (Lyme disease: Borrelia)
  59. lucid interval after traumatic brain injury is classical presentation of
    epidural hematoma (middle meningeal artery rupture)
  60. male child, recurrent infection, no mature B cells is classical presentation of
    Bruton's disease (X linked agammaglobulinemia)
  61. mucosal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time is classical presentation of
    Glanzmann's thrombasthenia (defect in platelet aggregation due to lack of GpIIb/IIIa)
  62. muffled heart sounds, distended neck viens, hypotension is classical presentation of
    Beck's triad of cardiac tamponade
  63. multiple colon polyps, osteomas/soft tissue tumors, impacted/supernumeral teeth is classical presentation of
    Gardner's synd (subtype of FAP)
  64. myopathy (infantile hypertrophic cardiomyopathy), exercise intolerance is classical presentation of
    pompe's disease (lysosomal α-1,4-glucosidase deficiency)
  65. neonate with arm paralysis following difficult birth is classical presentation of
    Erb-Duchenne palsy (superior trunk [C5-C6] brachial plexus injury; waiter's tip)
  66. no lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance is classical presentation of
    Sheehan's synd (pituitary infarction)
  67. nystagmus, intention tremors, scanning speech, bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia is classical presentation of
    multiple sclerosis
  68. oscillating slow/fast breathing is classical presentation of
    Cheyne-Strokes respiration (central apnea in CHF or inc intracranial pressure)
  69. painful blue fingers/toes, hemolytic anemia is classical presentation of
    cold agglutinin disease (autoimmune hemolytic anemia cause by Mycoplasma pneumoniae, infectious mononucleosis)
  70. painful, raised red lesions on pad of fingers/toes is classical presentation of
    Osler's nodes (infective endocarditis, immune complex deposition)
  71. painful, pale, cold fingers/toes is classical presentation of
    Raynaud's phenomenon (vasospasm in extremities)
  72. painless erythematous lesions on palms and soles is classical presentation of
    Janeway lesions (infective endocarditis, septic emboli/microabscesses)
  73. painless jaundice is classical presentation of
    cancer of the pancreatic head obstructing bile duct
  74. palpable purpura on buttocks/legs, joint pain, abd pain (child), hematuria is classical presentation of
    Henoch-Schonelein purpura (IgA vasculitis affecting skin and kidneys)
  75. pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumors is classical presentation of
    MEN I (autosomal dominanat)
  76. periorbital and/or peripheral edema, proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, hypercholesterolemia is classical presentation of
    nephrotic synd
  77. pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation is classical presentation of
    Pink puffer (emphysema: centriacinar [smoking], panacinar [α1- antitrypsin deficiency])
  78. polyuria, renal tubular acidosis type II, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances, hypophosphatemic rickets is classical presentation of
    Fanconi's anemia (proximal tubular reabsorption defect)
  79. positive anterior "drawer's sign" is classical presentation of
    ant cruciate ligament injury
  80. pruritic, purple, polygonal planar papules and plaques (6Ps) is classical presentation of
    lichen planus
  81. ptosis, myosis, anhidrosis is classical presentation of
    Horner's synd (symp chain lesion)
  82. pupil accommodates but doesn't react is classical presentation of
    Argyll-Robertson pupil (neurosyphilis)
  83. rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends following GI/upper respiratory infection is classical presentation of
    Guillian-Barre synd (acute autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy)
  84. rash on palms and soles is classical presentation of
    Coxsackie A, secondary syphilis, Rocky mountain spotted fever
  85. recurrent colds, unusual eczema, high serum IgE is classical presentation of
    hyper-IgE synd (Job's synd: neutrophil chemotaxis abnormailty)
  86. red "currant jelly" sputum in alcoholic or diabetic patient is classical presentation of
    Klebsiella pneumoniae
  87. red "currant jelly" stools is classical presentation of
    acute mesenteric ischemia (adults), intussusception (infants)
  88. red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple/areola is classical presentation of
    Paget's disease of the breast (represents underlying neoplasm)
  89. red urine in the morning, fragile RBCs is classical presentation of
    paroxysomal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
  90. renal cell carcinoma (bilateral), hemangioblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma is classical presentation of
    von Hippel-Lindau disease (dominant tumor suppressor gene mutation)
  91. resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability is classical presentation of
    Parkinson's disease (nigrostriatal dopamine depletion)
  92. retinal hemorrhages with pale centers is classical presentation of
    Roth's spots (bacterial endocarditis)
  93. severe jaundice in neonate is classical presentation of
    Crigler-Najjar synd (congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia)
  94. severe RLQ pain with palpation of LLQ is classical presentation of
    Rovsing's sign (acute appendicitis)
  95. severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness is classical presentation of
    McBurney's sign (appendicitis)
  96. short stature, inc incidence of tumors/leukemia, aplastic anemia is classical presentation of
    Fanconi's anemia (genetic loss of DNA crosslink repair; often progresses to AML)
  97. single palmar crease is classical presentation of
    simian crease (Down synd)
  98. situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis, infertility is classical presentation of
    Kartagner's synd (dynein arm defect affecting cilia)
  99. skin hyperpigmentation, hypotension, fatigue is classical presentation of
    • Addison's disease (primary adrenocortical insufficiency causes inc ACTH and Inc α-MSH production)
  100. slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys is classical presentation of
    Becker's muscular dystrophy (X linked missense mutation in dystrophin; less sever than Duchenne's)
  101. small, irregular red spots on buccal/lingual mucosa with blue-white centers is classical presentation of
    Koplik spots (measles; rubeola virus)
  102. smooth, flat, moist, painless white lesions on genitals is classical presentation of
    condylomata lata (secondary syphilis)
  103. splinter hemorrhages in fingernails is classical presentation of
    bacterial endocarditis
  104. "strawberry tongue" is classical presentation of
    scarlet fever, kawasaki disease, toxic shock synd
  105. streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horse shoe kidney, cystic hygroma at birth, short stature, webbed neck, lymphedema is classical presentation of
    Turner synd (45, XO)
  106. sudden swollen/painful big toe joint, trophi is classical presentation of
    Gout/podagra (hyperuricemia)
  107. swollen gums, mucosal bleeding, poor wound healing, spots on the skin is classical presentation of
    Scurvy (vit C deficiency: can't hydroxylate proline/lysine for collagen syn)
  108. swollen, hard, painful finger joints is classical presentation of
    Osteoarthritis (osteophytes on PIP [Bouchard's nodes], DIP [Heberden's nodes])
  109. systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo) is classical presentation of
    Arotic valve stenosis
  110. thyroid and parathyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma is classical presentation of
    MEN 2A (autosomal dominant ret mutation)
  111. thyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma, ganglioneuromatosis is classical presentation of
    MEN 2B (autosomal dominanat ret mutation)
  112. toe extension/fanning upon plantar scrape is classical presentation of
    Babinski sign (UMN lesion)
  113. unilateral facial drooping involving forehead is classical presentation of
    facial nerve (LMN CN VII palsy)
  114. urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis in a male is classical presentation of
    reactive arthritis associated with HLA-B27
  115. vascular birthmark (port-wine stain) is classical presentation of
    hemangioma (benign, but associated with struge-weber synd)
  116. vomiting blood following gastroesophageal lacerations is classical presentation of
    Mallory-Weiss synd (alcoholic and bulimic patients)
  117. weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy is classical presentation of
    Whipple's disease (Tropheryma whipplei)
  118. "worst headache of my life" is classical presentation of
    subarachnoid hemorrhage
  119. anticentromere antibodies is classical finding in
    scleroderma (CREST synd)
  120. antidesmoglein (epithelial) antibodies is classical finding in
    pemphigus vulgaris (blistering)
  121. anti-glomerular basement memb antibodies is classical finding in
    Goodpasture's synd (glomerulonephritis and hemoptysis)
  122. antihistone antibodies is classical finding in
    drug induced SLE (hydralazine, isoniazid, phenytoin, procainamide)
  123. anti-IgG antibodies is classical finding in
    rheumatoid arthritis (systemic inflammation, joint pannus, boutonniere deformity)
  124. antimitochondrial antibodies (AMAs) is classical finding in
    primary biliary cirrhosis (female, cholestasis, portal hypertension)
  125. antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs)
    vasculitis (c-ANCA: granulomatosis with polyangitis [Wegner']; p-ANCA: microscopic polyangitis, Churg-Strauss synd)
  126. antinuclear antibodies is classical finding in
    SLE (type III hypersensitivity)
  127. antiplatelet antibodies is classical finding in
    idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
  128. anti topoisomerase antibodies is classical finding in
    diffuse systemic scleroderma
  129. anti-transglutaminase/anti-gliadin/anti-endomysial antibodies is classical finding in
    celiac disease (diarrhea, distension, weight loss)
  130. "apple core" lesion on the X ray is classical finding in
    colorectal cancer (usually left sided)
  131. Azurophilic peroxidase-positive granular inclusions in granulocytes and myeloblasts is classical finding in
    Auer rods (acute myelogenous leukemia, especially the promeylocytic [M3] type)
  132. Bacitracin response is classical finding in
    • sensitive: Streptococcus pyogenes (group A);
    • resistant: Streptococcus agalactiae (group B)
  133. "bamboo spine" on X ray is classical finding in
    ankylosing spondylitis (chronic inflammatory arthritis: HLA-B27)
  134. basophilic nuclear remnants in RBCs is the classical finding in
    Howell-Jolly bodies (due to spleenectomy or nonfunctional spleen)
  135. basophilic stippling of RBCs is the classical finding in
    lead poisoning or sideroblastic anemia
  136. bloody tap on LP is the classical finding in
    subarachnoid hemorrhage
  137. "boot shaped" heart on X ray is the classical finding in
    tetralogy of Fallot, RVH
  138. branching gram-positive rods with sulfur granules is the classical finding in
    Actinomyces israelii
  139. bronchogenic apical lung tumor on imaging is the classical finding in
    Pancoast tumor (can compress symp ganglion and cause Horner's synd)
  140. "brown" tumor of bone is the classical finding in
    Hyperparathyroidism or osteitis fibrosa cystica (deposited hemosiderin from hemorrhage gives brown colour)
  141. cardiomegaly with apical atrophy is the classical finding in
    Chaga's disease (Trypanosoma cruzi)
  142. cellular crescents in Bowman's capsule is the classical finding in
    rapidly progressive crescentic glomerulonephritis
  143. chocolate cyst of ovary is the classical finding in
    endometriosis (frequently involves both ovaries)
  144. circular grouping of dark tumor cells surrounding pale neurofibrils is the classical finding in
    Homer-Wright rosettes (neuroblastoma, medulloblastoma, retinoblastoma)
  145. colonies of mucoid Pseudomonas in lungs is the classical finding in
    cystic fibrosis (autosomal recessive mutation in CFTR resulting in fat soluble vitamin deficiency and mucous plugs)
  146. decreased α-feto protein in amniotic fluid/maternal serum is the classical finding in
    Down synd or other chromosomal abnormality
  147. degeneration of dorsal column nerves is the classical finding in
    Tabes dorsalis (tertiary syphilis), subacute combined degeneration (dorsal columns and lateral corticospinal tracts affected)
  148. depigmentation of neurons in substantia niagra is the classical finding in
    Parkinson's disease (basal ganglia disorder: rigidity, resting tremor, bradykinesia)
  149. desquamated epithelium casts in sputum is the classical finding in
    Curschmann's spirals (bronchial asthma;can result in whorled mucous plugs)
  150. disarrayed granulosa cells in eosinophilic fluid is the classical finding in
    Call-Exner bodies (granulosa - theca cell tumor of the ovary)
  151. dysplastic squamous cervical cells with nuclear enlargement and hyperchromasia is the classical finding in
    koilocytes (HPV: predisposes to cervical cancer)
  152. enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusion bodies is the classical finding in
    "owl's eye" appearance in CMV
  153. enlarged thyroid cells with ground glass nuclei is the classical finding in
    "orphan Annie's eyes" nuclei (papillary carcinoma of the thyroid)
  154. eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion in the liver cell is the classical finding in
    Mallory bodies (alcoholic liver disease)
  155. eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion in nerve cell is the classical finding in
    Lewy body (parkinson's disease)
  156. eosinophilic globule in liver is the classical finding in
    Councilman body (toxic or viral hepatitis, often yellow fever)
  157. eosinophilic inclusion bodies in cytoplasm of hippocampal nerve cells is the classical finding in
    Negri bodies of rabies (Lyssavirus)
  158. extracellular amyloid deposition in gray matter of brain is the classical finding in
    Senile plaques (Alzheimer's disease)
  159. Giant B cells with bilobed nuclei with prominent inclusions ("owl's eye") is the classical finding in
    Reed-Sternberg (Hodgkin's lymphoma)
  160. Glomerulus like structure surrounding vessel in germ cells is the classical finding in
    Schiller-Duval bodies (yolk sac tumor)
  161. "hair on end" (crew cut) appearance on Xray is the classical finding in
    β thalassemia, sickle cell anemia (marrow expansion)
  162. hCG elevated is the classical finding in
    Choriocarcinoma, hydatiform mole (occurs with and without embyo)
  163. heart nodules (granulomatous) is the classical finding in
    Aschoff bodies (rheumatic fever)
  164. heterophile antibodies is the classical finding in
    infectious mononucleosis (EBV)
  165. hexagonal, dougle-pointed, needle like crystals in bronchial secretions is the classical finding in
    Bronchial asthma (Charcot-Leyden crystal: eosinophilic granules)
  166. high level of D-dimers is the classical finding in
    DVT, pulmonary embolism, DIC
  167. hilar lymphadenopathy, peripheral grnaulomatous lesion in middle or lower lung lobes (can calcify) is the classical finding in
    Ghon complex (primary TB: mycobacterium bacilli)
  168. "Honeycomb lung" on X ray or CT is the classical finding in
    interstitial pulm fibrosis
  169. hypercoagulability (leading to migrating DVTs and vasculitis) is the classical finding in
    Trousseau's synd (adenocarcinoma of pancreas or lung)
  170. hypersegmented neutrophils is the classical finding in
    megloblastic anemia (B12 deficiency: neurologic symp; folate deficiency: no neurologic symp)
  171. hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis is the classical finding in
    Conn's synd
  172. hypochromic, microcytic anemia is the classical finding in
    Fe deficiency anemia, lead poisoning, thalassemia (fetal Hb sometimes present)
  173. increase alpha fetoprotein in amniotic fluid/maternal serum is the classical finding in
    Dating error, anencephaly, spina bifida (neural tube defects)
  174. increased uric acid levels is the classical finding in
    Gout, Lesch-Nyhan synd, tumor lysis synd, loop and thiazide diuretics
  175. intranuclear eosinophilic droplet like bodies is the classical finding in
    Cowdry type A bodies (HSV or CMV)
  176. Fe containing nodules in alveolar septum is the classical finding in
    Ferruginous bodies (asbestosis: inc chance of mesothelioma)
  177. keratin pearls on a skin biopsy is the classical finding in
    squamous cell carcinoma
  178. large lysosomal vesicles in phagocytes, immunodeficiency is the classical finding in
    Chediak-Higashi disease (congenital failure of phagolysosome formation)
  179. "Lead pipe" appearance of colon on barium enema X ray is the classical finding in
    Ulcerative colitis (loss of hustra)
  180. Linear appearance of IgG depositon on glomerular basement memb is the classical finding in
    Goodpasture's synd
  181. low serum Ceruloplasmin is the classical finding in
    Wilson's disease (hepatolenticular degeneration)
  182. "lumpy bumpy" appearance of glomeruli on immunofluorescence is the classical finding in
    post streptococcal glomerulonephritis (immune complex deposition of IgG and C3b)
  183. Lytic ("hole punched") bone lesions on X ray is the classical finding in
    Multiple myeloma
  184. mammary gland ("blue domed") cyst is the classical finding in
    fibrocystic change of breast
  185. Monoclonal antibody spike is the classical finding in
    • Multiple myeloma (usually IgG or IgA)
    • monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS; normal consequence of aging)
    • Waldenstrom's (M protein=IgM) macroglobulinemia
    • primary amyloidosis
  186. mucin filled cell with peripheral nucleus is the classical finding in
    Signet ring (gastric carcinoma)
  187. narrowing of bowel lumen on barium X ray is the classical finding in
    "String sign" (Crohn's disease)
  188. necrotising vasculitis (lungs) and necrotising glomerulonephritis is the classical finding in
    Granulomatosis with polyangitis (Wegner's; c-ANCA positive) and Goodpasture's synd (anti-basement memb antibodies)
  189. needle shaped, negative birefringent crystals is the classical finding in
    Gout (monosodium urate crystals)
  190. nodular hyaline deposits in glomeruli is the classical finding in
    Kimmelstiel-Wilson nodules (diabetic nephropathy)
  191. Novobiocin response is the classical finding in
    • sensitive: Staphylococcus epidermidis;
    • resistant: Staphylococcus saprophyticus
  192. "Nutmeg" appearance of liver is the classical finding in
    chronic passive congestion of liver due to right heart failure
  193. "Onion skin" periosteal reaction is the classical finding in
    Ewing's sarcoma (malignant round cell tumor)
  194. Optochin response is the classical finding in
    • sensitive: Streptococcus pneumoniae
    • resistant: Viridans streptococcus
  195. periosteum raised from bone, creating triangular area is the classical finding in
    Codman's triangle on X ray (osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, pyogenic osteomyelitis)
  196. podocyte fusion or "effacement" on electron microscopy is the classical finding in
    Minimal change disease (child with nephrotic synd)
  197. Polished, "ivory like" appearance of bone at cartilage erosion is the classical finding in
    Eburnation (osteoarthritis resulting in bony sclerosis)
  198. protein aggregates in neurons due to hyperphosphorylation of protein tau is the classical finding in
    Neurofibrillary tangles (Alzheimer's disease) and Pick's bidies (Pick's disease)
  199. psammoma bodies is the classical finding in
    meningiomas, papillary thyroid carcinoma, mesothelioma, papillary serous carcinoma of endometrium and ovary
  200. Pseudopalisading cells on brain biopsy is the classical finding in
    Glioblastoma multiforme
  201. RBC casts in urine is the classical finding in
    Acute glomerulonephritis
  202. rectangular, crystal like, cytoplasmic inclusions in Leydig cells is the classical finding in
    Reinke crystals (Leydig cell tumor)
  203. renal epithelial casts in urine is the classical finding in
    Acute toxic/viral nephrosis
  204. rhomboid crystals, positively birefringent is the classical finding in
    Pseudogout (calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals)
  205. rib notching is the classical finding in
    coarctation of aorta
  206. ring enhancing brain lesion in AIDS is the classical finding in
    Toxoplasma gondii, CNS lymphoma
  207. sheets of medium sized lymphoid cells with scattered pale, tingible body-laden macrophages ("starry sky" histology) is the classical finding in
    Burkitt's lymphoma (t[8:14] c-myc activation, associated with EBV; "black sky" made up of malignant cells)
  208. silver staining spherical aggregation of tau proteins in neurons is the classical finding in
    Pick's bodies (Pick's disease: progressive dementia, changes in personality)
  209. "soap bubble" in femur or tibia on X ray is the classical finding in
    Giant cell tumor of bone (generally benign)
  210. "spikes" on basement memb, "dome like" subepithelial deposits is the classical finding in
    membranous glomerulonephritis (may progress to nephrotic synd)
  211. stacks of RBCs is the classical finding in
    Rouleaux formation (high ESR, multiple myeloma)
  212. stippled vaginal epithelial cells is the classical finding in
    "clue cells" (Gardenerella vaginalis)
  213. "Tennis racket" shaped cytoplasmic organelles (EM) in Langerhans cells is the classical finding in
    Birbeck granules (Langerhans cell histiocytosis or histiocytosis X: eosinophilic granuloma)
  214. thrombi made of white/red layers is the classical finding in
    lines of Zahn (arterial thrombus, layers of platelets/RBCs)
  215. "Thumb sign" on lateral X ray is the classical finding in
    epiglottitis (Haemophilus influenzae)
  216. thyroid like appearance of kidney is the classical finding in
    chronic bilateral pyelonephritis
  217. Tram-track appearance of capillary loops of glomerular basement memb on light microscopy is the classical finding in
    Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
  218. triglyceride accumulation in liver cell vacuoles is the classical finding in
    fatty liver cell disease (alcoholic or metabolic synd)
  219. "Waxy" casts with very low urine flow is the classical finding in
    chronic end stage renal disease
  220. WBC casts in urine is the classical finding in
    acute pyelonephritis
  221. WBCs that look "smudged" is the classical finding in
    CLL (almost always B cell)
  222. "Wire loop" glomerular capillary appearance on light microscopy is the classical finding in
    Lupus nephropathy
  223. yellowish CSF is the classical finding in
    Xanthochromia (e.g., due to subarachnoid hemorrhage)
  224. condition: absence seizures
    common treatment: ??

    ethosuximide
  225. condition: acute gout attack
    common treatment: ??
    NSAIDs, colchicine
  226. condition: Acute promyelocytic leukemia (M3)
    common treatment: ??
    all-trans retinoic acid
  227. condition: ADHD
    common treatment: ??
    Methylphenidate, amphetamines
  228. condition: alcohol abuse
    common treatment: ??
    AA + disulfiram for patient and Al-Anon for family
  229. condition: alcohol withdrawl
    common treatment: ??
    benzodiazepines
  230. condition: anorexia
    common treatment: ??
    SSRIs
  231. condition: anticoagulation during pregnancy
    common treatment: ??
    heparin
  232. condition: arrhythmia in a damaged cardiac tissue
    common treatment: ??
    class IB antiarrhythmic (lidocaine, mexiletine, tocainide)
  233. condition: B12 deficiency
    common treatment: ??
    vit B12 supplementation (work up with Schilling test)
  234. condition: benign prostatic hyperplasia
    common treatment: ??
    Tamsulosin, fenasteide
  235. condition: bipolar disorder
    common treatment: ??
    Lithium, Valproate, Carbamazepine, Lamotrigine (mood stabilizers)
  236. condition: breast cancer in post menopausal women
    common treatment: ??
    aromatase inhibitor (anastrozole)
  237. condition: Buerger's disease
    common treatment: ??
    smoking cessation
  238. condition: bulimia
    common treatment: ??
    SSRIs
  239. condition: Candida albicans
    common treatment: ??
    Amphotericin B (systemic), nystatin (oral thrush, esophagitis)
  240. condition: carcinoid synd
    common treatment: ??
    octreotide
  241. condition: Chlamydia trachomatis
    common treatment: ??
    Doxycycline (+ceftriaxone for gonorrhea coinfection), Erythromycin eye drops (prophylaxis for infants)
  242. condition: chronic gout
    common treatment: ??
    probenecid (underexcretor), allopurinol (overproducer)
  243. condition: chronic hepatitis
    common treatment: ??
    IFN-α
  244. condition: Chronic myelogenous leukemia
    common treatment: ??
    Imatinib
  245. condition: Clostridium botulinum
    common treatment: ??
    antitoxin
  246. condition: Clostidium difficile
    common treatment: ??
    oral metronidazole; if refractory, oral vancomycin
  247. condition: Clostridium tetani
    common treatment: ??
    antitoxin+vaccine booster+diazepam
  248. condition: Crohn's disease
    common treatment: ??
    corticosteroids, Infliximab
  249. condition: Cryptococcus neoformans
    common treatment: ??
    Fluconazole (prophylaxis in AIDS patients)
  250. condition: Cyclophosphamide induced hemorrhagic cystits
    common treatment: ??
    Mesna
  251. condition: cystic fibrosis
    common treatment: ??
    N-acetylcysteine+antipseudomonal prophylaxis (tobramycin/azithromycin)
  252. condition: Cytomegalovirus
    common treatment: ??
    Gancyclovir
  253. condition: depression
    common treatment: ??
    SSRIs (first line)
  254. condition: Diabetes insipidus
    common treatment: ??
    • Desmopressin (central)
    • hydrocholrthiazide, indomethacin, amiloride (nephrogenic)
  255. condition: Diabetes mellitus type I
    common treatment: ??
    dietary intervention (low sugar)+insulin replacement
  256. condition: diabetes mellitus type 2
    common treatment: ??
    dietary intervention, oral hypoglycemics and insulin (possible)
  257. condition: diabetic ketoacidosis
    common treatment: ??
    fluids, insulin, K+
  258. condition: enterococci
    common treatment: ??
    vancomycin/ampicillin+aminoglycoside
  259. condition: erectile dysfunction
    common treatment: ??
    sildenafil, vardenafil
  260. condition: ER-positive breast cancer
    common treatment: ??
    tamoxifen
  261. condition: ethylene glycol/methanol intoxication
    common treatment: ??
    fomepizole (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor)
  262. condition: Haemophilus influenzae (B)
    common treatment: ??
    rifampin (prophylaxis)
  263. condition: generalized anxiety disorder
    common treatment: ??
    buspirone
  264. condition: heparin toxicity (acute)
    common treatment: ??
    protamine sulfate
  265. condition: HER2/neu-positve breast cancer
    common treatment: ??
    trastuzumab
  266. condition: hyperaldosteronism
    common treatment: ??
    spironolactone
  267. condition: hypercholesterolemia
    common treatment: ??
    statin (first line)
  268. condition: hypertriglyceridemia
    common treatment: ??
    fibrate
  269. condition: immediate anticoagulation
    common treatment: ??
    heparin
  270. condition: infertility
    common treatment: ??
    Leuprolide, GnRH (pulsatile)
  271. condition: Influenza
    common treatment: ??
    rimantadine, oseltamivir
  272. condition: Legionella pneumophila
    common treatment: ??
    erythromycin
  273. for long term anticoagulation we commonly use
    warfarin
  274. condition: Malaria
    common treatment: ??
    chloroquine/mefloquine (for blood schizont), primaquine (for liver hypnozoite)
  275. condition: malignant hyperthermia
    common treatment: ??
    dantrolene
  276. condition: medical abortion
    common treatment: ??
    mifepristone
  277. condition: Migraine
    common treatment: ??
    sumatriptan
  278. condition: MRSA
    common treatment: ??
    vancomycin
  279. condition: Multiple sclerosis
    common treatment: ??
    β interferon, immunosuppression, natalizumab
  280. condition: Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    common treatment: ??
    RIPE (rifampin, INH, pyrazinamide, ethmbutol)
  281. condition: Neisseria gonorrhoeae
    common treatment: ??
    ceftiaxone (add Doxycycline to cover concurrent Chlamydia)
  282. condition: Neisseria meningitidis
    common treatment: ??
    penicillin/ceftriaxone, rifampin (prophylaxis)
  283. condition: neural tube defect prevention
    common treatment: ??
    prenatal folic acid
  284. condition: osteomalacia/rickets
    common treatment: ??
    vit D supplementation
  285. condition: Osteoporosis
    common treatment: ??
    bisphosphonates; calcium and vitamin D supplementation
  286. condition: patent ductus arteriosus
    common treatment: ??
    indomethacin
  287. condition: pheochromocytoma
    common treatment: ??
    α antagonists (e.g., phenoxybenzamine)
  288. condition: Pneumocystis jirovecii
    common treatment: ??
    TMP-SMX (prophylaxis in AIDS patient)
  289. condition: prolactinoma
    common treatment: ??
    bromocriptine (dopamine agonists)
  290. condition: prostate cancer/uterine fibroids
    common treatment: ??
    Leuprolide, GnRH (continuous)
  291. condition: prostate carcinoma
    common treatment: ??
    Flutamide
  292. condition: Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    common treatment: ??
    antipseudomonal penicillin+aminoglycoside
  293. condition: pulmonary arterial hypertension (idiopathic)
    common treatment: ??
    sildenafil, bosentan, epoprostenol
  294. condition: Rickettisia rickettsii
    common treatment: ??
    doxycycline, chloramphenicol (especially in context of aplastic anemia)
  295. condition: ring worm infections
    common treatment: ??
    terbinafine, griseofluvin, imidazole
  296. condition: schizophrenia (negative symptoms)
    common treatment: ??
    5-HT2A antagonists (e.g., second generation antipsychotics)
  297. condition: schizophrenia (positive symptoms)
    common treatment: ??
    D2 receptor antagonists (e.g., first and second generation antipsychotics)
  298. condition: SIADH
    common treatment: ??
    Demeclocycline, lithium, vasopressin receptor antagonists
  299. condition: sickle cell anemia
    common treatment: ??
    hydroxyurea (inc fetal Hb)
  300. condition: Sporothrix schenckii
    common treatment: ??
    oral potassium chloride
  301. condition: stable angina
    common treatment: ??
    sublingual nitroglycerin
  302. condition: staphylococcus aureus
    common treatment: ??
    • MSSA: nafcillin, oxacillin, dicloxacillin (antistaphylococcal penicillins); 
    • MRSA: vancomycin
  303. condition: Streptococcus bovis
    common treatment: ??
    penicillin prophylaxis; evaluation for colon cancer if linked to endocarditis
  304. condition: Streptococcus pneumoniae
    common treatment: ??
    penicillin/cephalosporin (systemic infection, pneumonia), vancomycin (meningitis)
  305. condition: Streptococcus pyogenes
    common treatment: ??
    penicillin prophylaxis
  306. condition: temporal arteritis
    common treatment: ??
    high dose steroids
  307. condition: tonic clonic seizures
    common treatment: ??
    phenytoin, valproate, carbamezepine
  308. condition: toxoplasma gondii
    common treatment: ??
    sulfadiazine + pyrimethamine
  309. condition: Treponema pallidum
    common treatment: ??
    penicillin
  310. condition: Trichomonas vaginalis
    common treatment: ??
    metronidazole (patient and partner)
  311. condition: ulcerative colitis
    common treatment: ??
    5-ASA, infliximab
  312. condition: UTI prophylaxis
    common treatment: ??
    TMP-SMX
  313. condition: Warfarin toxicity
    common treatment: ??
    • fresh frozen plasma (acute)
    • vit K (chronic)
  314. condition: Wegener's granulomatosis with polyangiitis
    common treatment: ??
    Cyclophosphamide, corticosteroids
  315. disease/finding: actinic (solar) keratosis
    most common/important association: ??
    precursor to squamous cell carcinoma
  316. disease/finding: acute gastric ulcer associated with CNS injury
    most common/important association: ??
    Cushing's ulcer (inc ICP stimulates vagal gastric secretion)
  317. disease/finding: acute gastric ulcer associated with severe burns
    most common/important association: ??
    Curling's ulcer (greatly reduced plasma volume results in sloughing of gastric mucosa)
  318. disease/finding: alternating areas of transmural inflammation and normal colon
    most common/important association: ??
    skip lesions (Crohn's disease
  319. disease/finding: aneurysm, dissecting
    most common/important association: ??
    hypertension
  320. disease/finding: aortic aneurysm, abdominal and descending aorta
    most common/important association: ??
    atherosclerosis
  321. disease/finding: aortic aneurysm, arch
    most common/important association: ??
    tertiary syphilis (syphilitic aortitis), vasa vasorum distruction
  322. disease/finding: aortic aneurysm, ascending
    most common/important association: ??
    Marfan's synd (idiopathic cystic medial degeneration)
  323. disease/finding:  atrophy of the mammillary bodies
    most common/important association: ??
    Wernicke's encephalopathy (thiamine deficiency causing ataxia, ophthalmoplegia and confusion)
  324. disease/finding: autosplenectomy (fibrosis and shrinkage)
    most common/important association: ??
    sickle cell anemia (Hb S)
  325. disease/finding: bacteria associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and stomach cancer
    most common/important association: ??
    H.pylori
  326. disease/finding: bacterial meningitis (adults and elderly)
    most common/important association: ??
    Streptococcus pneumoniae
  327. disease/finding: bacterial meningitis (new borns and kids)
    most common/important association: ??
    group B Streptococcus (newborns), S.pneumoniae/Neisseira meningitidis (kids)
  328. disease/finding: benign melanocytic nevus
    most common/important association: ??
    spitz nevus (most common in first two decades)
  329. disease/finding: bleeding disorder with GpIb deficiency
    most common/important association: ??
    Bernard-Soulier synd (defect in platelet adhesion to von Willebrand's factor)
  330. disease/finding: brain tumors (adults)
    most common/important association: ??
    supratentorial: metastasis > astrocytoma (including glioblastoma multiforme) > meningioma > schwannoma
  331. disease/finding: brain tumors (kids)
    most common/important association: ??
    • infratentorial: medulloblastoma (cerebellum) or
    • supratentorial: craniopharyngioma (cerebrum)
  332. disease/finding: breast cancer
    most common/important association: ??
    infiltrating duct carcinoma (in US 1 in 9 women will develop breast cancer)
  333. disease/finding: breast mass
    most common/important association: ??
    fibrocystic change, carcinoma (in postmenopausal women)
  334. disease/finding: breast tumor (benign)
    most common/important association: ??
    fibroadenoma
  335. disease/finding: cardiac primary tumor (kids)
    most common/important association: ??
    rhabdomyoma, often seen in tuberous sclerosis
  336. disease/finding: cardiac manifestation of lupus
    most common/important association: ??
    Libmann-Sacks endocarditis (non bacterial, affecting both sides of mitral valve)
  337. disease/finding: cardiac tumor (adults)
    most common/important association: ??
    metastasis, primary myxoma (4:1 left to right atrium; "ball and valve")
  338. disease/finding: cerebellar tonsillar herniation
    most common/important association: ??
    Chiari malformation (often presents with progressive hydrocephalus or syringomelia)
  339. disease/finding: chronic arrhythmia
    most common/important association: ??
    atrial fibrillation (assosiated with high risk of emboli)
  340. disease/finding: chronic atrophic gastritis (autoimmune)
    most common/important association: ??
    predisposition to gastric carcinoma (can also cause pernicious anemia)
  341. disease/finding: clear cell adenocarcinoma of vagina
    most common/important association: ??
    DES exposure in utero
  342. disease/finding: compression fracture
    most common/important association: ??
    osteoporosis (type I: postmenopausal woman; type II: elderly man or woman)
  343. disease/finding: congenital adrenal hyperplasia, hypotension
    most common/important association: ??
    21-hydroxylase deficiency
  344. disease/finding: congenital cardiac anamoly
    most common/important association: ??
    VSD
  345. disease/finding: congenital conjugated hyperbilirubinemia (black liver)
    most common/important association: ??
    Dubin-Johnson synd (inability of hepatocytes to secrete conjugated bilirubin into bile)
  346. disease/finding: constrictive pericarditis
    most common/important association: ??
    tuberculosis (developing world); systemic lupus erythematosis (developed world)
  347. disease/finding: coronary artery involved in thrombosis
    most common/important association: ??
    LAD > RCA > LCA
  348. disease/finding: cretinism
    most common/important association: ??
    iodine deficit/hypothyroidism
  349. disease/finding: disease/finding: cushing's synd
    most common/important association: ??
    • iatrogenic cushing's (from corticosteroid therapy)
    • adrenocortical adenoma (secretes excess cortisol)
    • ACTH secreting pituitaty adenoma
    • paraneoplastic cushing's (due to ACTH secretion by tumors)
  350. disease/finding: cyanosis (early; less common)
    most common/important association: ??
    tetralogy of fallot, transposition of great vessels, truncus arteriosus
  351. disease/finding: cyanosis (late; more common)
    most common/important association: ??
    VSD, ASD, PDA
  352. disease/finding: death in CML
    most common/important association: ??
    blast crisis
  353. disease/finding: death in SLE
    most common/important association: ??
    lupus nephropathy
  354. disease/finding: dementia
    most common/important association: ??
    alzheimer's disease, multiple infarcts
  355. disease/finding: demyelinating disease in young women
    most common/important association: ??
    mutiple sclerosis
  356. disease/finding: DIC
    most common/important association: ??
    severe sepsis, obstetric complications, cancer, burns, trauma, major surgery
  357. disease/finding: dietary deficit
    most common/important association: ??
    iron
  358. disease/finding: diverticulum in pharynx
    most common/important association: ??
    Zenker's diverticulum (diagnosed by barium swallow)
  359. disease/finding: ejection click
    most common/important association: ??
    aortic/pulmonic stenosis
  360. disease/finding: esophageal cancer
    most common/important association: ??
    squamous cell carcinoma (world wide); adenocarcinoma (in us)
  361. disease/finding: food poisoning (exotoxin mediated)
    most common/important association: ??
    S.aureus, B.cereus
  362. disease/finding: glomerulonephritis (adults)
    most common/important association: ??
    Berger's disease (IgA nephropathy)
  363. disease/finding: gynaecologic malignancy
    most common/important association: ??
    • endometrial carcinoma (most common in US)
    • cervical carcinoma (most common worldwide)
  364. disease/finding: heart murmur, congenital
    most common/important association: ??
    mitral valve prolapse
  365. disease/finding: heart valve in bacterial endocarditis
    most common/important association: ??
    mitral > aortic (rheumatic fever), tricuspid (IV drug abuse)
  366. disease/finding: helminth infection (U.S)
    most common/important association: ??
    Enterobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides
  367. disease/finding: hematoma - epidural
    most common/important association: ??
    rupture of middle meningeal artery (trauma; lentiform shaped)
  368. disease/finding: hematoma - subdural
    most common/important association: ??
    rupture of bridging veins (crescent shaped)
  369. disease/finding: Hemochromatosis
    most common/important association: ??
    multiple blood transfusions or hereditary HFE mutation (can result in CHF, "bronze diabetes" and inc risk of hepatocellular carcinoma)
  370. disease/finding: hepatocellular carcinoma
    most common/important association: ??
    cirrhotic liver (associated with hepatitis B and C and with alcoholism)
  371. disease/finding: hereditary bleeding disorder
    most common/important association: ??
    von Willebrand's disease
  372. disease/finding: hereditary harmless jaundice
    most common/important association: ??
    Gilbert's synd (benign congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia)
  373. disease/finding: HLA - B27
    most common/important association: ??
    ankylosing spondylitis, Reiter's synd, ulcerative colitis, psoriasis
  374. disease/finding: HLA - DR3 or DR4
    most common/important association: ??
    Diabetes mellitus type I, rheumatoid arthritis, SLE
  375. disease/finding: holosystolic murmur
    most common/important association: ??
    VSD, tricuspid regurgutation, mitral regurgitation
  376. disease/finding: hypercoagulability, endothelial damage, blood stasis
    most common/important association: ??
    Virchow's triad (results in venous thrombosis)
  377. disease/finding: hypertension, secondary
    most common/important association: ??
    renal disease
  378. disease/finding: hypoparathyroidism
    most common/important association: ??
    accidental excison during thyroidectomy
  379. disease/finding: hypopituitarism
    most common/important association: ??
    pituitary adenoma (usually benign tumor)
  380. disease/finding: infection secondary to blood transfusion
    most common/important association: ??
    hepatitis C
  381. disease/finding: infections in chronic granulomatous disease
    most common/important association: ??
    Staphylococcus aureus, E.coli, Aspergillus (catalase positive)
  382. disease/finding: kidney stones
    most common/important association: ??
    • calcium = radiopaque
    • Struvite (ammonium) = radiopaque (formed by urease positive organisms like Proteus vulgaris or Staphylococcus)
    • Uric acid = radiolucent
  383. disease/finding: late cyanotic shunt (uncorrected left to right becomes right to left)
    most common/important association: ??
    Eisenmenger's synd (caused by ASD, VSD, PDA; results in pulmonary hypertension/polycythemia)
  384. disease/finding: liver disease
    most common/important association: ??
    alcoholic cirrhosis
  385. disease/finding: lysosomal storage disease
    most common/important association: ??
    Gaucher's disease
  386. disease/finding: male cancer
    most common/important association: ??
    prostatic carcinoma
  387. disease/finding: malignancy associated with noninfectious fever
    most common/important association: ??
    Hodgkin's lymphoma
  388. malignancy (kids)
    most common/important association: ??
    ALL, medulloblastoma (cerebellum)
  389. disease/finding: mental retardation
    most common/important association: ??
    Down synd, fragile X synd
  390. disease/finding: metastases to bone
    most common/important association: ??
    prostate, breast > lung > thyroid, testes
  391. disease/finding: metastases to brain
    most common/important association: ??
    lung > breast > genitourinaty > osteosarcoma > melanoma > GI
  392. disease/finding: metastases to liver
    most common/important association: ??
    colon >> stomach, pancreas
  393. disease/finding: mitochondrial inheritence
    most common/important association: ??
    disease occurs in both males and females; inherited through females only
  394. disease/finding: mitral valve stenosis
    most common/important association: ??
    rheumatic heart disease
  395. disease/finding: mixed (UMN and LMN) motor neuron disease
    most common/important association: ??
    ALS
  396. disease/finding: myocarditis
    most common/important association: ??
    coxsackie B
  397. disease/finding: nephrotic synd (adults)
    most common/important association: ??
    focal segmental glomerulosclerosis
  398. disease/finding: nephrotic synd (kids)
    most common/important association: ??
    minimal change disease
  399. disease/finding: neuron migration failure
    most common/important association: ??
    kallmann synd (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and anosmia)
  400. disease/finding: nosocomia pneumonia
    most common/important association: ??
    Klebsiella, E.coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  401. disease/finding: obstruction of male urinary tract
    most common/important association: ??
    BPH
  402. disease/finding: opening snap
    most common/important association: ??
    mitral stenosis
  403. disease/finding: opportunistic infection in AIDS
    most common/important association: ??
    Pneumocystis jirovecii (formerly carinii) pneumonia
  404. disease/finding: osteomyelitis
    most common/important association: ??
    S.aureus
  405. disease/finding: osteomyelitis in sickel cell disease
    most common/important association: ??
    salmonella
  406. disease/finding: osteomyelitis with IV drug use
    most common/important association: ??
    Psuedomonas, S.aureus
  407. disease/finding: ovarian metastasis from gastric carcinoma or breast cancer
    most common/important association: ??
    Krukenberg tumor (mucin secreting signet ring cells)
  408. disease/finding: ovarian tumor (benign, bilateral)
    most common/important association: ??
    serous cystadenoma
  409. disease/finding: ovarian tumor (malignant)
    most common/important association: ??
    serous cystadenocarcinoma
  410. disease/finding: pancreatitis (acute)
    most common/important association: ??
    gallstones, alcohol
  411. disease/finding: pancreatitis (chronic)
    most common/important association: ??
    alcohol (adults), cystic fibrosis (kids)
  412. disease/finding: patient with ALL/CLL/AML/CML
    most common/important association: ??
    • ALL: child
    • CLL: adult > 60,
    • AML: adult ~ 65,
    • CML: adult 30-60
  413. disease/finding: pelvic inflammatory disease
    most common/important association: ??
    Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae
  414. disease/finding: philadelphia chromosome t(9;22) (bcr-abl)
    most common/important association: ??
    CML (may sometimes be associated with AML/ALL)
  415. disease/finding: pituitary tumor
    most common/important association: ??
    prolactinoma, somatotropic "acidophilic" adenoma
  416. disease/finding: primary amenorrhea
    most common/important association: ??
    Turner synd (45,XO)
  417. disease/finding: primary bone tumor (adults)
    most common/important association: ??
    multiple myeloma
  418. disease/finding: primary hyperaldosteronism
    most common/important association: ??
    adenoma of adrenal cortex
  419. disease/finding: primary hyperparathyroidism
    most common/important association: ??
    adenomas, hyperplasia, carcinoma
  420. disease/finding: primary liver cancer
    most common/important association: ??
    hepatocellular carcinoma (chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, hemochromatosis, α1 antitrypsin deficiency)
  421. disease/finding: pulmonary hypertension
    most common/important association: ??
    COPD
  422. disease/finding: recurrent inflammation/thrombosis of small/medium vessels in extremities
    most common/important association: ??
    Buerger's disease (strongly associated with tobacco)
  423. disease/finding: renal tumor
    most common/important association: ??
    renal cell carcinoma: associated with von Hippel-Lindau and cigarette smoking; paraneoplastic synds (EPO, renin, PTH, ACTH)
  424. disease/finding: right heart failure due to a pulmonary cause
    most common/important association: ??
    Cor pulmonale
  425. disease/finding: S3 (protodiastolic gallop)
    most common/important association: ??
    inc venticular filling (left to right shunt, mitral regurgitation, LV failure [CHF])
  426. S4 (presystolic gallop)
    most common/important association: ??
    stiff/hypertrophic ventricle (aortic stenosis, restrictive cardiomyopathy)
  427. disease/finding: secondary hyperparathyroidism
    most common/important association: ??
    hypocalcemia of chronic kidney disease
  428. disease/finding: sexually transmitted disease
    most common/important association: ??
    chlamydia (usually coinfected with gonorrhea)
  429. disease/finding: SIADH
    most common/important association: ??
    small cell carcinoma of the lung
  430. disease/finding: site of diverticula
    most common/important association: ??
    sigmoid colon
  431. disease/finding: sites of atherosclerosis
    most common/important association: ??
    abd aorta > coronary artery > popliteal artery > carotid artery
  432. disease/finding: stomach cancer
    most common/important association: ??
    adenocarcinoma
  433. disease/finding: stomach ulcerations and high gastrin levels
    most common/important association: ??
    Zollinger-Ellison synd (gastrinoma of duodenum or pancreas)
  434. disease/finding: t(14;18)
    most common/important association: ??
    follicular lymphomas (bcl-2 activation)
  435. disease/finding: t(8;14)
    most common/important association: ??
    burkitt's lymphoma (c-myc activation)
  436. t(9;22)
    most common/important association: ??
    philadelphia chromosome, CML (bcr-abl fusion)
  437. disease/finding: temporal arteritis
    most common/important association: ??
    risk of ipsilateral blindness due to thrombosis of ophthalmic artery; polymyalgia rheumatica
  438. disease/finding: testicular tumor
    most common/important association: ??
    seminoma
  439. disease/finding: thyroid cancer
    most common/important association: ??
    papillary carcinoma
  440. disease/finding: tumor in women
    most common/important association: ??
    leiomyoma (estrogen dependent, not precancerous)
  441. disease/finding: tumor of infancy
    most common/important association: ??
    hemangioma (usually regresses spontaneously by childhood)
  442. disease/finding: tumor of adrenal medulla (adults)
    most common/important association: ??
    pheochromocytoma (usually benign)
  443. disease/finding: tumor of adrenal medulla (kids)
    most common/important association: ??
    neuroblastoma (usually malignant)
  444. disease/finding: type of Hodgkin's
    most common/important association: ??
    nodular sclerosis (vs. mixed cellularity, lymphocytic predominance, lymphocytic depletion)
  445. disease/finding: type of non Hodgkin's
    most common/important association: ??
    diffuse large cell
  446. disease/finding: UTI
    most common/important association: ??
    E.coli, Staphylococcus saprophyticus (young women)
  447. disease/finding: viral encephalitis effecting the temporal lobe
    most common/important association: ??
    HSV-1
  448. disease/finding: vit deficiency (U.S)
    most common/important association: ??
    folate (pregnant women are at high risk; body stores only 3 to 4 month supply; prevents neural tube defects)
  449. topic: sensitivity
    what is it and what is its equation??
  450. topic: specificity
    what is it and what is its equation??
  451. topic: positive predictive value
    what is it and what is its equation??
  452. topic: negative predictive value
    what is it and what is its equation??
  453. topic: odds ratio (for case control studies)
    what is it and what is its equation??
  454. topic: relative risk
    what is it and what is its equation??
  455. topic: attributable risk
    what is it and what is its equation??
  456. topic: number needed to treat
    what is it and what is its equation??
    NNT =1/absolute risk reduction
  457. topic: number needed to harm
    what is it and what is its equation??
    NNH = 1/attributable risk
  458. topic: body mass index
    what is it and what is its equation??
    •   
    • the weight is in kgs and the height is taken in meters
  459. topic: Hardy weinberg equation
    what is it and what is its equation??


  460. topic: volume of distribution
    what is it and what is its equation??
    v= amt of drug in the body/plama drug conc
  461. topic: half life
    what is it and what is its equation??
  462. topic: drug clearance
    what is it and what is its equation??
    CL = rate of elimination of drug/plasma drug conc



    • Ke = elimiantion constant
  463. topic: loading dose
    what is it and what is its equation??
  464. topic: maintenance dose
    what is it and what is its equation??
  465. topic: cardiac output
    what is it and what is its equation??
    co = rate of o2 consumption/(arteial o2 content minus venous o2 content)
  466. topic: mean arterial pressure
    what is it and what is its equation??
    • MAP = cardiac output x total peripheral resistance
  467. topic: stroke volume
    what is it and what is its equation??
    • SV = CO/HR = EDV-ESV
    • SV is effected by contractility, afterload and preload
    • inc SV when inc preload, dec afterload, or inc contractility
  468. topic: ejection fraction
    what is it and what is its equation??
    • EF = SV/EDV = [EDV-ESV]/EDV
    • EF is an index of ventricular contractility
    • normally > or = 55%
    • it dec in systolic failure
  469. topic: resistance
    what is it and what is its equation??
    R = driving pr(ΔP) / flow(Q)

    R = 8η(viscosity)(length)/πr4

    total resistance of vessels in series = R1+R2+R3....

    • 1/total resistance in parallel = 1/R1+1/R2+1/R3........
    • viscosity depends mostly on hematocrit
    • viscosity inc in 
    • a) polycythemia
    • b) hyperproteinemic states (multiple myeloma)
    • c) hereditary spherocytosis
    • viscosity decreases in anemia
    • arterioles account for most of the TPR and thus regulate capillary flow
  470. topic: net filtration pressure
    what is it and what is its equation??
    • Pnet = [(Pc-Pi) - (Πci)]
    • Jv = net fluid flow = (Kf)(Pnet)

    • edema or excess fluid outflow into interstitium commonly caused by
    • a) inc in capillary pr (heart failure)
    • b) dec in plasma pro (nephrotic, liver failure)
    • c) inc capillary permiability (inc Kf; toxins, infections, burns)
    • d) inc in intestitial fluid colloid osmotic pr (lymphatic blockade)
  471. topic: renal clearance
    what is it and what is its equation??
    Cx = UxV/Px

    • volume of plasma from which the substance is cleared completely per unit time
    • Cx < GFR: net tubular reabsroption of X
    • C> GFR: net tubular secretion of X
    • Cx = GFR: no net secretion or reabsorption
    • U- urine conc of X
    • Px - plasma conc of X
    • V - urine flow rate
    • units of CL - mL/min
  472. topic: glomerular filtration rate
    what is it and what is its equation??
    GFR = Uinulin x V/Pinulin = Cinulin

    • GFR = Kf[(PGC - Pbs) - (ΠGC - Πbs)] 
    • inulin clearance can be used to calculate GFR because it is freely filtered and is neither reabsorbed nor secreted
    • GC - glomerular capillary
    • BS - bowman's space
    • normal GFR ~ 100 ml/min
    • creatinine clearance is an app measure of GFR
    • Slightly overestimates GFR as creatinine is moderately secreted by the renal tubules
    • incremental reductions in GFR define the stages of chronic kidney disease
  473. topic: effective renal plasma flow
    what is it and what is its equation??


    • ERPF can be estimated using PAH clearance because it is both filtered and actively secreted in the proximal tubule 
    • all PAH entering the kidney is excreted
    • ERPF underestimates true RPF by ~10%
  474. topic: renal blood flow
    what is it and what is its equation??
    renal blood flow = RPF/(1-Hct)
  475. topic: filteration fraction
    what is it and what is its equation??
    • FF = GFR/RPF
    • normal FF is 20%
    • filtered load = GFR x Plasma conc
    • GFR can be estimated by creatinine clearance
    • RPF is best estimated with PAH clearance
  476. topic: Henderson-Hesselbalch equation (for extracellular pH)
    what is it and what is its equation??
  477. topic: physiological dead space
    what is it and what is its equation??


    • VD = physiological dead space = antomical dead space of conducting airways plus functional dead space in alveoli; apex of healthy lung is the largest contributor of func dead space. Volume of inspired air that does not take part in gas exhange
    • VT = tidal volume
    • Paco2 = arterial Pco2
    • Peco2 = expired air Pco2
    • code: Taco, Paco, Peco, Paco (refers to the order of variables in eq)
  478. topic: pulmonary vascular resistance
    what is it and what is its equation??
    • PVR = (Ppulm artery - PL atrium)/ cardiac output
    • remember: ΔP = QxR; so R = ΔP/Q
    • R = 8ηl/πr4
    • Ppulm artery =pr in pulm artery
    • Plt atrium = pr in lt atrium
    • η = viscosity of blood
    • l = vessel length
    • r = vessel radius
  479. topic: alveolar gas equation
    what is it and what is its equation??
    • PAo2 = PIo- (PaCO2/R)
    • can normally be approximated to PA02 = 150 - (PaCO2/0.8)
    • PAo2 = alveolar Po2
    • PIo2 = Po2 in inspired air
    • PaCo2 = arterial Pco2
    • R = respiratiory quotient = co2 produced/o2 consumed
    • A-a gradient may occur in hypoxemia; causes include shunting, V/Q mismatch, fibrosis (impairs diffusion)

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