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What are examples of quantitative change? 4
- Change in amounts, like,
- 1) height
- 2) weight
- 3) size of vocabu
- 4) frequency of communication
Continuous throughout childhood
Qualitative change? 1 ex.
- Change in kind, structure, or organization.
- 1) Verbal child from one who doesn't understand.
What describes children's underlying personality patterns?
2. What %?
Stability - most children have an underlying stability or constancy in personality and behavior. 10-15% of children are consistently shy or bold.
What are 3 basic domains of self development?
- psychosocial development
3 examples of physical?
- growth of brain and body
- 2) sensory capabilities
- 3) motor skills
5 examples of cognitive development?
- 1) learning
- 2) memory
- 3) language
- 4) thinking
- 5) creativity
3 examples of psychosocial development?
- 1) personality
- 2) emotions
- 3) social relationships
Define social construction
Social construction - idea about nature of reality based on shared subjective perception or assumption. E.G. what is an adolescent vs. adult.
What else influences intelligence?
Intelligence (12) - strongly affected by hereditary, but environmental factors like parental stimulation, education, and peer influence also affect it.
What is acculturate?
Acculturate - adapting to culture of new dominant culture or country
What are normative influences? 2 points
Those that impact many or most people. (e.g. puberty, going to school for the first time).
Can also be “normative history-graded influences” like the Great Depression or 9/11, shapes attitudes of a generation.
What are nonnormative influences? 3 points
Unusual events that impact an individual.
Can be typical events that happen at different times, like marriage, death of parent).
Can be atypical events, e.g. being in car crash, winning lottery
What is imprinting?
Imprinting - instinctive form of learning when young animal forms attachment to first object it sees, usually the mother.
Ducks will attach to a man if its there flapping around.
What is a critical period? What's the beef w/ that?
Critical period - a specific time for an event, or absence of event, that impacts development.
Current research suggests, however, a certain plasticity, or modifiability of performance. So possible to reconsider as sensitive periods, when development is especially responsive, and possibly later experiences can continue to influence development
In 1970 a young girl was found, 13, who had been locked in a room her whole life, tied to a chair, and had no language. A few years of testing showed she could learn some words, but was mostly unable to speak.
However, most researchers think we can’t say its impossible yet, just very difficult, to acquire language later in life.