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2013-09-18 11:06:56

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  1. Define Blood
    Liquid connective tissue, that contains RBS, WBC and plasma; made in bone marrow.

    38 C and 100.4 F
  2. What are the 3 functions of blood
    Transportation, regulation, and protection
  3. Define transportation of blood
    blood transports oxygen from lungs to cells and carbon dioxide from cells to lungs for exhalation. Carries nutrients from GI tract to cells, hormones from endocrine glands to other cells and heat and waste products away from cells to organs
  4. Define regulation of blood
    circulating blood helps maintain homeostasis of all body fluids. Helps regulate PH through buffers. Helps adjust body temp through heat-absorbing and coolant properties of water in blood and blood's variable rate of flow through skin. Blood osmotic pressure influences the water content of cells mainly through interactions of dissolved ions and proteins.
  5. Define protection of blood
    • (blood loss and immunity)
    • blood can clot in response to injury  which protects against excessive loss from cardo system. WBC protect against disease by carrying on phagocytosis. Several types of blood proteins including antibodies, interferons and complement.
  6. What is plasma
    • liquid extracellular fluid that contains dissolved substances and formed elements which include cells and cell fragments.
    • 91.5$ water and 8.5% solutes/proteins.
  7. define plasma proteins and their funtions
    synthesized mainly by liver cells 38% globulins, 7% fibrinogen and 1.5% electroltyes, gas and vitamins

    • Functions
    • help maintain proper blood osmotic pressure
    • immune responses/defends
    • form blood clots
  8. Explain Plasma proteins(3)
    Albumins-54% of plasma proteins, maintain blood osmotic pressures

    Globulins-38% of plasma proteins including antibodies

    Fibrinogen-makes up about 7% of plasma proteins and is a key protein in formation of blood clots
  9. What are the formed elements of blood
    RBS, WBC and platelets(cell fragments)
  10. What are the WBC(1% of 45% formed elements) types and which ones are granular and agranular?
    Agranular-Monocytes and lymphocytes

    Granular-Neutrophils, Eisanophils and basophils
  11. What does RBC contain?
    99% of blood of 45% of formed elements

    • hematocrit
    • Hemopoesis
    • Red bone marrow
    • pluripotent stem cells
  12. What is hematocrit and hemopoesis?
    Hematocrit-percentage of total blood volume occupied by RBC's

    Hemopoesis-production of formed elements or process by which formed elements of blood develop
  13. Explain blood bone marrow
    highly vasculized connective tissue located in microscopic spaces between trabaculae of spongy bone tissue.Mostly in bones of axial skeleton pectoral and pelvic girdles and proximal epiphyses of humerus and femur
  14. What are pluirpotent stem cells
    cells that have the ability to develop into many different types of cells
  15. Explain the pluripotent stem cell diagram(structure of formed elements)
    • Myeloid Stem cells
    •  Proerythroblast.........Reticulocyte.....RBC
    •  Megakaryoblast.........Megakaryocyte...Platelets
    •  Eosiniphillic........Eosiniphil
    •  Basophillic myeoblast......Basophil
    •  Myeoblast......Neutrophil
    •  Monoblast.....Monocyte......Macrophage
    • Mast Cell

    • Lymphoid stem cell
    •  T Lympohblast.....T Cell/Lymphocyte
    •  B lymphoblast.....B Cell/Lymphocyte
    •  NK Lymphoblast...Natural Killer(NK cell)
  16. What are precursor cells(blasts)
    Myeloid and lymphoid stem cells give rise to precursor cells. Percursor cells give rise to specific elements of blood

    example: monoblast develop into monocytes
  17. What are hemopoietic growth factors
    regulate the difrentiation and proliferation of particular formed elements
  18. What are erythropoietin(EPO) and Thrombopoitein
    Erythro-produced by kidneys increases the # of RBC precursor. Stimulates RBC production. Hematocrit anemia and polycythemia.

    Thromb-A hormone produced by the liver that stimulates the formation of platelets from megakaryocytes
  19. Explain Cytokines
    Small glycoprotein hormones typically produced by cells such as red bone marrow cells and macrophages, stimulate white blood cell formation
  20. What is hemoglobin
    carries oxygen a pigment that gives whole blood its red color
  21. Explain the Anatomy and Physiology of RBC's
    Anatomy- Erythrocytes(mature RBC) bioconcave discs with simple structure; lack nucleus and other organelles and can neither reproduce nor carry on extensive metabolic activities(loss of nucleus causes dent)

    • Physiology-composed of 4 polypeptide chains, a ring-like nonprotein called heme(at the center of the heme is Iron ion Fe 2+
    •  that can combine reversibly with one oxygen molecule allowing each hemoglobin molecule to bind four oxygen molecules.
  22. Explain breakdown of products process(RBC life cycle)
    1. microphages in spleen liver and red bone marrow phagocyticize ruptured and worn out RBC's splitting apart the globin and heme portions of hemoglobin

    2. globin is broken down into amino acids which can be reused by body cells to synthesize other proteins

    3. Iron removed from heme portion associate's with plasma protein:transferrin-transporter for iron on the blood stream

    4. Iron transferrin complex is then carried to red bone marrow where RBC precursor cells use it in hemoglobin synthesis

    5. Within red bone marrow erythropoiesis releases RBC's into circulation

    6. When iron is removed from heme the non-iron portion of heme is converted to biliverdin(green pigment) and then into bilirubin(yellow-orange pigment)...enters blood then secreted by liver cells that turn into bile; passes through small and large intestine.

    7. In large intestine bacteria convert bilirubin into urobilinogen; some absorbed back into blood; converted to a yellow pigment called urobilin excreted into urine. Most urobilinogen is eliminated in feces in the form of a brown pigment called sterobilin which gives feces its color.