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Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes based on empiricism
based on something you get through the senses using systematic measurements to prove facts
the philosophical belief that we are born with certain abilities; Plato
- argues that all knowledge
- is acquired; blank slate. Aristotle
Contribution of physiology to psychology
Allowed psychology to measure the speed of nerve impulses.
way to study psychology by breaking it down into the basic components. Introspection used by both Wundt and Titchener to organize the components.
Abilities help humans adapt to their environment; Charles Darwin "Natural Selection"
emphasizes the importance of unconscious mental processes in shaping feelings, thoughts, and behaviors
approach to understanding human nature that emphasizes the positive potential of human beings
Skinner's approach to behaviorism and free will
- Animals react to reinforcements or the positive or negative consequences of an action. Skinner believed that we only think that we are exercising free will
- when in fact we are only reacting to the positive and negative reinforcements
- of our everyday actions
Introduction of Cognitive Psychology
- The subjective part of the mind was
- ignored up until the early 1950s because of the school of behaviorism. With the
- introduction influence of the computer, psychologist created a new form of
- psychology that would study the processes of the mind including perception,
- memory, and reasoning.
the study of how presence of other people have on people
the study of how cultures reflect and shape the psychological processes of their members
Theory based explanations that don't use observations; describe the tendency for people to cling to their assumptions
belief that accurate knowledge can be acquired through observation
Develop a general idea created because of empirical data (a theory) that then leads to a falsifiable prediction. Then a study is designed, significant data is collected, analyze and conclude, then report data.
Goals of the Scientific Method
- D. escription
- E. xplanaion
- P. rediction
- C. hange
Describes EXACTLY what we are studying and leaves no wiggle room;
When the participant knows the goals of the experiment and change behavior to fit the goals
a technique for gathering information by unobtrusively observing people in their natural environments