Psych Chapter 1

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Psych Chapter 1
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2013-09-15 22:02:15
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  1. Define psychology
    Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes based on empiricism
  2. Empiricism
    based on something you get through the senses using systematic measurements to prove facts
  3. Nativism
    the philosophical belief that we are born with certain abilities; Plato
  4. Philosophical empiricism
    • argues that all knowledge
    • is acquired; blank slate. Aristotle
  5. Contribution of physiology to psychology
    Allowed psychology to measure the speed of nerve impulses.
  6. Structuralism
    way to study psychology by breaking it down into the basic components. Introspection used by both Wundt and Titchener to organize the components.
  7. Functualism
    Abilities help humans adapt to their environment; Charles Darwin "Natural Selection"
  8. Psychoanalytic Theory
    emphasizes the importance of unconscious mental processes in shaping feelings, thoughts, and behaviors
  9. humanistic psychology
    approach to understanding human nature that emphasizes the positive potential of human beings
  10. Skinner's approach to behaviorism and free will
    • Animals react to reinforcements or the positive or negative consequences of an action. Skinner believed that we only think that we are exercising free will
    • when in fact we are only reacting to the positive and negative reinforcements
    • of our everyday actions
  11. Introduction of Cognitive Psychology
    • The subjective part of the mind was
    • ignored up until the early 1950s because of the school of behaviorism. With the
    • introduction influence of the computer, psychologist created a new form of
    • psychology that would study the processes of the mind including perception,
    • memory, and reasoning.
  12. Social Psychology
    the study of how presence of other people have on people
  13. Cultural Psychology
    the study of how cultures reflect and shape the psychological processes of their members
  14. Dogmatism
    Theory based explanations that don't use observations; describe the tendency for people to cling to their assumptions
  15. Empiricism
    belief that accurate knowledge can be acquired through observation
  16. Scientific theory
    Develop a general idea created because of empirical data (a theory) that then leads to a falsifiable prediction. Then a study is designed, significant data is collected, analyze and conclude, then report data.
  17. Goals of the Scientific Method
    • D. escription 
    • E. xplanaion
    • P. rediction
    • C. hange
  18. Operational Definitions
    Describes EXACTLY what we are studying and leaves no wiggle room;
  19. Demand Characteristics
    When the participant knows the goals of the experiment and change behavior to fit the goals
  20. Naturalistic Observation
    a technique for gathering information by unobtrusively observing people in their natural environments

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